Chapter 15: Civil Rights Notes - Margaret Jagger Period 1...

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Margaret Jagger3/14/16Period 1Chapter 15: Civil Rights Notes15.1Equality and Equal RightsCivil rights: the rights of all people to be free from irrational discrimination such as that based on race, religion, sex, or ethnic originNatural rights: the rights of all people to dignity and worthHuman rightsAffirmative action: remedial action designed to overcome the effects of discrimination against minorities and womenEquality of opportunity: everyone has the same opportunity to achieve things regardless of race, ethnic origin, religion, sex, and sexual orientationEquality between groupsEquality of resultsEquality of starting positionCitizenship RightsThe Constitution protects the acquisition and retention of citizenshipIt protects the basic liberties of citizens as well as aliens, though in times of war, foreign saboteurs and terrorists may be detained and tried without the rights accorded to citizens and other aliensNaturalization: a legal action conferring citizenship on an alienRequirements: Be over the age of 18Be lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence and have resided in the United States for at least five years and in the state for at least six monthsFile a petition of naturalization with a clerk of court of record (federal or state) verified by two witnessesBe able to read, write, and speak EnglishPosses a good moral characterUnderstand and demonstrate an attachment to the history, principles, andform of government of the United StatesDemonstrate the he or she is well-disposed toward the good order and happiness of the countryDemonstrate that he or she doesn’t not believe in, advocated, or belonged to an organization that supports opposition to organized government, overthrow of government by violence, or the doctrines of world communism or any other form of totalitarianismDual citizenship: citizenship in more than one nationRight of expatriation: the right to renounce one’s citizenship15.2The Quest for Equal Justice
Although African Americans’ rights were finally recognized under the 13th, 14th, and 15thamendments, the government failed to act to prevent racial discrimination for nearly a century afterwardsThe women’s rights movement was born partly out of the struggle to abolish slavery, andthe women’s movement learned and gained power from the civil rights movements of the1950s and the 1960sConcern for equal rights under the law continues today for African Americans and womenHIspanics, Asian Americans, and Native Americans have also experienced discriminationThe original Constitution didn’t mention equality, and only white males were allowed privileges such as voting rights14th amendment first clarified the concept of equality by ensuring that all citizens receive“equal protection of the laws”The Supreme Court’s modern interpretation of equality has brought civil rights to the

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