The-Basics-of-General-Organic-and-Biological-Chemistry - This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons

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Unformatted text preview: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee. Saylor.org Saylor URL: 1 Preface This textbook is intended for the one-semester GOB course. Although a two-semester GOB sequence is available at many colleges and universities, one-semester GOB offerings are increasing in popularity. The need to cover so many topics in one semester or quarter places additional pressure on the tools used to teach the course, and the authors feel that a textbook developed explicitly for the one-semester course will provide students with a superior educational experience. Many onesemester GOB courses employ either a rewritten, watereddown two-semester textbook or a bona fide two-semester textbook with cherry-picked topics. In the opinion of this author team, neither choice provides students with the best learning experience. This textbook does not have a twosemester counterpart. It was developed specifically for the onesemester GOB course. As such, the chapters are short and succinct, covering the fundamental material and leaving out the extraneous. We recognize that students taking this particular course are likely interested in health professions, such as nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, physician assistance, and the like. As such, we have focused certain examples and textbook features on these areas so students realize from the beginning how these basic chemistry topics apply to their career choice. This textbook is divided into approximately one-half general chemistry topics, one-fourth organic chemistry topics, and one-fourth biochemistry topics. We feel that these fractions provide the appropriate mix of chemistry topics for most students’ needs. The presentation is standard: there is no Saylor.org Saylor URL: 2 attempt to integrate organic and biological chemistry throughout a general chemistry textbook, although there is an early introduction to organic chemistry so that carboncontaining compounds can be included as soon as possible. The first chapter stands out a bit for covering a relatively large amount of material, but that is necessary. There is a certain skill set that students must have to be successful in any GOB course, and rather than relegate these skills to an appendix that is too often overlooked, the first chapter covers them explicitly. Some of these topics can be omitted at the instructor’s discretion. The G part of the textbook then continues into atoms and molecules, chemical reactions, simple stoichiometry, energy, the phases of matter, solutions, and acids and bases (including a short treatment of equilibrium) and then ends with nuclear chemistry. The O part of the textbook starts with hydrocarbons and quickly covers aromatic compounds and the basic functional groups, focusing on those functional groups that have specific applications in biochemistry. The B part starts by immediately applying the organic knowledge to carbohydrates and other biologically important compounds. This section ends with a chapter on metabolism, which is, after all, the ultimate goal for a textbook like this—a discussion of the chemistry of life. Each chapter is filled with example problems that illustrate the concepts at hand. In the mathematical exercises, a consistent style of problem solving has been used. We understand that there may be more than one way to solve a mathematical problem, but having a consistent problem-solving style Saylor.org Saylor URL: 3 increases the chance for student comprehension. Particular emphasis is placed on the units of quantities and how they have to work out appropriately in algebraic treatments. For each example problem, there is a Skill-Building Exercise immediately following that will help students practice the very same concept but without an elaborate answer worked out. Every section of each chapter starts with one or more Learning Objectives that preview the section. These Learning Objectives are echoed at the end of each section with Key Takeaways as well as Concept Review Exercises that ask about the main ideas of the section. Sections then end with a set of exercises that students can use to immediately put the knowledge of that section into practice. Most of the exercises are paired, so that students can work two similar exercises for additional practice. Finally, Additional Exercises at the end of each chapter ask more challenging questions, bring multiple concepts together into a single exercise, or extend the chapter concepts to broader perspectives. The complete exercise portfolio of the textbook—Skill-Building Exercises, Concept Review Exercises, end-of-section exercises, and Additional Exercises—provides multiple opportunities for students to practice the content. Other features in the textbook include Looking Closer, a chance to expand on a topic more than a typical textbook would. We have selected topics that are relevant and should appeal to students at this level. There are essays titled To Your Health that focus on how some of the topics relate directly to health issues—the focus of most of the students in this course. Do students realize that the simple act of breathing, something most of us do without thinking, is a gas law in action? Most Saylor.org Saylor URL: 4 chapters also have a Career Focus that presents an occupation related to the health professions. Students at this level may not know exactly what they want to do in the health professions, so having these essays gives some information about the career possibilities awaiting them. These features are kept to a minimum, however; this is a onesemester textbook covering general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry. We recognize that users appreciate features like this, but we also recognize the need to focus on the core chemistry content. We hope we have reached an appropriate balance with the amount of additional features. We hope that this textbook meets your and your students’ goals. Saylor.org Saylor URL: 5 Chapter 1 Chemistry, Matter, and Measurement Opening Essay In April 2003, the US Pharmacopeia, a national organization that establishes quality standards for medications, reported a case in which a physician ordered “morphine [a powerful painkiller] 2–3 mg IV [intravenously] every 2–3 hours for pain.” A nurse misread the dose as “23 mg” and thus administered approximately 10 times the proper amount to an 8-year-old boy with a broken leg. The boy stopped breathing but was successfully resuscitated and left the hospital three days later. Quantities and measurements are as important in our everyday lives as they are in medicine. The posted speed limits on roads and highways, such as 55 miles per hour (mph), are quantities we might encounter all the time. Both parts of a quantity, the amount (55) and the unit (mph), must be properly communicated to prevent potential problems. In chemistry, as in any technical endeavor, the proper expression of quantities is a necessary fundamental skill. As we begin our journey into chemistry, we will learn this skill so that errors—from homework mistakes to traffic tickets to more serious consequences—can be avoided. The study of chemistry will open your eyes to a fascinating world. Chemical processes are continuously at work all around us. They happen as you cook and eat food, strike a match, shampoo your hair, and even read this page. Chemistry is called the central science because a knowledge of chemical Saylor.org Saylor URL: 6 principles is essential for other sciences. You might be surprised at the extent to which chemistry pervades your life. 1.1 What Is Chemistry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Define chemistry in relation to other sciences. 2. Identify the general steps in the scientific method. Chemistry is the study of matter—what it consists of, what its properties are, and how it changes. Being able to describe the ingredients in a cake and how they change when the cake is baked is called chemistry. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space—that is, anything that is physically real. Some things are easily identified as matter—this book, for example. Others are not so obvious. Because we move so easily through air, we sometimes forget that it, too, is matter. Chemistry is one branch of science. Science is the process by which we learn about the natural universe by observing, testing, and then generating models that explain our observations. Because the physical universe is so vast, there are many different branches of science (Figure 1.1 "The Relationships between Some of the Major Branches of Science"). Thus, chemistry is the study of matter, biology is the study of living things, and geology is the study of rocks and the earth. Mathematics is the language of science, and we will use it to communicate some of the ideas of chemistry. Saylor.org Saylor URL: 7 Although we divide science into different fields, there is much overlap among them. For example, some biologists and chemists work in both fields so much that their work is called biochemistry. Similarly, geology and chemistry overlap in the field called geochemistry. Figure 1.1 "The Relationships between Some of the Major Branches of Science" shows how many of the individual fields of science are related. Figure 1.1 The Relationships between Some of the Major Branches of Science Saylor.org Saylor URL: 8 Chemistry lies more or less in the middle, which emphasizes its importance to many branches of science. Note There are many other fields of science, in addition to the ones (biology, medicine, etc.) listed here. Looking Closer: Alchemy As our understanding of the universe has changed over time, so has the practice of science. Chemistry in its modern form, based on principles that we consider valid today, was developed in the 1600s and 1700s. Before that, the study of matter was known as alchemy and was practiced mainly in China, Arabia, Egypt, and Europe. Alchemy was a somewhat mystical and secretive approach to learning how to manipulate matter. Practitioners, called alchemists, thought that all matter was composed of different proportions of the four basic elements—fire, water, earth, and air—and believed that if you changed the relative proportions of these elements in a substance, you could change the substance. The long-standing attempts to “transmute” common metals into gold represented one goal of alchemy. Alchemy’s other major goal was to synthesize the philosopher’s stone, a material that could impart long life—even immortality. Alchemists used symbols to represent substances, some of which are shown in the accompanying figure. This was not done to better communicate ideas, as chemists do today, but to maintain the secrecy of alchemical knowledge, keeping others from sharing in it. Saylor.org Saylor URL: 9 In spite of this secrecy, in its time alchemy was respected as a serious, scholarly endeavor. Isaac Newton, the great mathematician and physicist, was also an alchemist. E XAM PLE 1 Which fields of study are branches of science? Explain. 1. sculpture 2. astronomy Solution 1. Sculpture is not considered a science because it is not a study of some aspect of the natural universe. 2. Astronomy is the study of stars and planets, which are part of the natural universe. Astronomy is therefore a field of science. S K ILL - BUIL DIN G E XE RCISE Which fields of study are branches of science? 1. politics 2. physiology (the study of the function of an animal’s or a plant’s body) 3. geophysics 4. agriculture Saylor.org Saylor URL: 10 How do scientists work? Generally, they follow a process called the scientific method. The scientific method is an organized procedure for learning answers to questions. To find the answer to a question (for example, “Why do birds fly toward Earth’s equator during the cold months?”), a scientist goes through the following steps, which are also illustrated in Figure 1.2 "The General Steps of the Scientific Method": Figure 1.2 The General Steps of the Scientific Method The steps may not be as clear-cut in real life as described here, but most scientific work follows this general outline. 1. Propose a hypothesis. A scientist generates a testable idea, or hypothesis, to try to answer a question or explain Saylor.org Saylor URL: 11 how the natural universe works. Some people use the word theory in place of hypothesis, but the word hypothesis is the proper word in science. For scientific applications, the word theory is a general statement that describes a large set of observations and data. A theory represents the highest level of scientific understanding. 2. Test the hypothesis. A scientist evaluates the hypothesis by devising and carrying out experiments to test it. If the hypothesis passes the test, it may be a proper answer to the question. If the hypothesis does not pass the test, it may not be a good answer. 3. Refine the hypothesis if necessary. Depending on the results of experiments, a scientist may want to modify the hypothesis and then test it again. Sometimes the results show the original hypothesis to be completely wrong, in which case a scientist will have to devise a new hypothesis. Not all scientific investigations are simple enough to be separated into these three discrete steps. But these steps represent the general method by which scientists learn about our natural universe. CONCEPT REVIEW EXERC ISES 1. Define science and chemistry. 2. Name the steps of the scientific method. ANSWERS Saylor.org Saylor URL: 12 1. Science is a process by which we learn about the natural universe by observing, testing, and then generating models that explain our observations. Chemistry is the study of matter. 2. propose a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, and refine the hypothesis if necessary KEY TAKEAWAYS Chemistry is the study of matter and how it behaves. The scientific method is the general process by which we learn about the natural universe. EXERCISES 1. Based on what you know, which fields are branches of science? a. meteorology (the study of weather) b. astrophysics (the physics of planets and stars) c. economics (the study of money and monetary systems) d. astrology (the prediction of human events based on planetary and star positions) e. political science (the study of politics) 2. Based on what you know, which fields are a branches of science? a. history (the study of past events) b. ornithology (the study of birds) c. paleontology (the study of fossils) Saylor.org Saylor URL: 13 d. zoology (the study of animals) e. phrenology (using the shape of the head to determine personal characteristics) 3. Which of the following are examples of matter? a. a baby b. an idea c. the Empire State Building d. an emotion e. the air f. Alpha Centauri, the closest known star (excluding the sun) to our solar system 4. Which of the following are examples of matter? a. your textbook b. brain cells c. love d. a can of soda e. breakfast cereal 5. Suggest a name for the science that studies the physics of rocks and the earth. 6. Suggest a name for the study of the physics of living organisms. 7. Engineering is the practical application of scientific principles and discoveries to develop things that make our lives easier. Is medicine science or engineering? Justify your answer. Saylor.org Saylor URL: 14 8. Based on the definition of engineering in Exercise 7, would building a bridge over a river or road be considered science or engineering? Justify your answer. 9. When someone says, “I have a theory that excess salt causes high blood pressure,” does that person really have a theory? If it is not a theory, what is it? 10.When a person says, “My hypothesis is that excess calcium in the diet causes kidney stones,” what does the person need to do to determine if the hypothesis is correct? 11. Some people argue that many scientists accept many scientific principles on faith. Using what you know about the scientific method, how might you argue against that assertion? 12. Most students take multiple English classes in school. Does the study of English use the scientific method? ANSWERS 1. a. b. c. d. e. science science not science not science not science 3. a. matter Saylor.org Saylor URL: 15 b. c. d. e. f. not matter matter not matter matter matter 5. geophysics 7. Medicine is probably closer to a field of engineering than a field of science, but this may be arguable. Ask your doctor. 9. In scientific terms, this person has a hypothesis. 11. Science is based on reproducible facts, not blind belief. 1.2 The Classification of Matter LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Use physical and chemical properties, including phase, to describe matter. 2. Identify a sample of matter as an element, a compound, or a mixture. Saylor.org Saylor URL: 16 Part of understanding matter is being able to describe it. One way chemists describe matter is to assign different kinds of properties to different categories. Physical and Chemical Properties The properties that chemists use to describe matter fall into two general categories. Physical properties are characteristics that describe matter. They include characteristics such as size, shape, color, and mass. Chemical properties are characteristics that describe how matter changes its chemical structure or composition. An example of a chemical property is flammability—a material’s ability to burn—because burning (also known as combustion) changes the chemical composition of a material. Elements and Compounds Any sample of matter that has the same physical and chemical properties throughout the sample is called a substance. There are two types of substances. A substance that cannot be broken down into chemically simpler components is an element. Aluminum, which is used in soda cans, is an element. A substance that can be broken down into chemically simpler components (because it has more than one element) is acompound (Figure 1.2 "The General Steps of the Scientific Method"). Water is a compound composed of the elements hydrogen and oxygen. Today, there are about 118 elements in the known universe. In contrast, scientists have identified tens of millions of different compounds to date. Note Saylor.org Saylor URL: 17 Sometimes the word pure is added to substance, but this is not absolutely necessary. By definition, any single substance is pure. The smallest part of an element that maintains the identity of that element is called an atom. Atoms are extremely tiny; to make a line 1 inch long, you would need 217 million iron atoms. The smallest part of a compound that maintains the identity of that compound is called a molecule. Molecules are composed of atoms that are attached together and behave as a unit. Scientists usually work with millions and millions of atoms and molecules at a time. When a scientist is working with large numbers of atoms or molecules at a time, the scientist is studying the macroscopic view of the universe. However, scientists can also describe chemical events on the level of individual atoms or molecules, which is referred to as the microscopic viewpoint. We will see examples of both macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints throughout this book (Figure 1.3 "How Many Particles Are Needed for a Period in a Sentence?"). Figure 1.3 How Many Particles Are Needed for a Period in a Sentence? Saylor.org Saylor URL: 18 Although we do not notice it from a macroscopic perspective, matter is composed of microscopic particles so tiny that billions of them are needed to make a speck we can see with the naked eye. The ×25 and ×400,000,000 indicate the number of times the image is magnified. Mixtures A material composed of two or more substances is a mixture. In a mixture, the individual substances maintain their chemical identities. Many mixtures are obvious combinations of two or more substances, such as a mixture of sand and water. Such mixtures are called heterogeneous mixtures. In ...
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