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Saylor URL: 1 Preface
This textbook is intended for the one-semester GOB course.
Although a two-semester GOB sequence is available at many
colleges and universities, one-semester GOB offerings are
increasing in popularity. The need to cover so many topics in
one semester or quarter places additional pressure on the tools
used to teach the course, and the authors feel that a textbook
developed explicitly for the one-semester course will provide
students with a superior educational experience. Many onesemester GOB courses employ either a rewritten, watereddown two-semester textbook or a bona fide two-semester
textbook with cherry-picked topics. In the opinion of this
author team, neither choice provides students with the best
learning experience. This textbook does not have a twosemester counterpart. It was developed specifically for the onesemester GOB course. As such, the chapters are short and
succinct, covering the fundamental material and leaving out
the extraneous. We recognize that students taking this
particular course are likely interested in health professions,
such as nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy,
physician assistance, and the like. As such, we have focused
certain examples and textbook features on these areas so
students realize from the beginning how these basic chemistry
topics apply to their career choice.
This textbook is divided into approximately one-half general
chemistry topics, one-fourth organic chemistry topics, and
one-fourth biochemistry topics. We feel that these fractions
provide the appropriate mix of chemistry topics for most
students’ needs. The presentation is standard: there is no
Saylor URL: 2 attempt to integrate organic and biological chemistry
throughout a general chemistry textbook, although there is an
early introduction to organic chemistry so that carboncontaining compounds can be included as soon as possible.
The first chapter stands out a bit for covering a relatively large
amount of material, but that is necessary. There is a certain
skill set that students must have to be successful in any GOB
course, and rather than relegate these skills to an appendix
that is too often overlooked, the first chapter covers them
explicitly. Some of these topics can be omitted at the
The G part of the textbook then continues into atoms and
molecules, chemical reactions, simple stoichiometry, energy,
the phases of matter, solutions, and acids and bases (including
a short treatment of equilibrium) and then ends with nuclear
chemistry. The O part of the textbook starts with hydrocarbons
and quickly covers aromatic compounds and the basic
functional groups, focusing on those functional groups that
have specific applications in biochemistry. The B part starts by
immediately applying the organic knowledge to carbohydrates
and other biologically important compounds. This section ends
with a chapter on metabolism, which is, after all, the ultimate
goal for a textbook like this—a discussion of the chemistry of
Each chapter is filled with example problems that illustrate the
concepts at hand. In the mathematical exercises, a consistent
style of problem solving has been used. We understand that
there may be more than one way to solve a mathematical
problem, but having a consistent problem-solving style
Saylor URL: 3 increases the chance for student comprehension. Particular
emphasis is placed on the units of quantities and how they
have to work out appropriately in algebraic treatments. For
each example problem, there is a Skill-Building Exercise
immediately following that will help students practice the very
same concept but without an elaborate answer worked out.
Every section of each chapter starts with one or more Learning
Objectives that preview the section. These Learning Objectives
are echoed at the end of each section with Key Takeaways as
well as Concept Review Exercises that ask about the main ideas
of the section. Sections then end with a set of exercises that
students can use to immediately put the knowledge of that
section into practice. Most of the exercises are paired, so that
students can work two similar exercises for additional practice.
Finally, Additional Exercises at the end of each chapter ask
more challenging questions, bring multiple concepts together
into a single exercise, or extend the chapter concepts to
broader perspectives. The complete exercise portfolio of the
textbook—Skill-Building Exercises, Concept Review Exercises,
end-of-section exercises, and Additional Exercises—provides
multiple opportunities for students to practice the content.
Other features in the textbook include Looking Closer, a
chance to expand on a topic more than a typical textbook
would. We have selected topics that are relevant and should
appeal to students at this level. There are essays titled To Your
Health that focus on how some of the topics relate directly to
health issues—the focus of most of the students in this course.
Do students realize that the simple act of breathing, something
most of us do without thinking, is a gas law in action? Most
Saylor URL: 4 chapters also have a Career Focus that presents an occupation
related to the health professions. Students at this level may not
know exactly what they want to do in the health professions, so
having these essays gives some information about the career
possibilities awaiting them.
These features are kept to a minimum, however; this is a onesemester textbook covering general chemistry, organic
chemistry, and biochemistry. We recognize that users
appreciate features like this, but we also recognize the need to
focus on the core chemistry content. We hope we have reached
an appropriate balance with the amount of additional features.
We hope that this textbook meets your and your students’
Saylor URL: 5 Chapter 1
Chemistry, Matter, and Measurement Opening Essay
In April 2003, the US Pharmacopeia, a national organization
that establishes quality standards for medications, reported a
case in which a physician ordered “morphine [a powerful
painkiller] 2–3 mg IV [intravenously] every 2–3 hours for
pain.” A nurse misread the dose as “23 mg” and thus
administered approximately 10 times the proper amount to an
8-year-old boy with a broken leg. The boy stopped breathing
but was successfully resuscitated and left the hospital three
Quantities and measurements are as important in our everyday
lives as they are in medicine. The posted speed limits on roads
and highways, such as 55 miles per hour (mph), are quantities
we might encounter all the time. Both parts of a quantity, the
amount (55) and the unit (mph), must be properly
communicated to prevent potential problems. In chemistry, as
in any technical endeavor, the proper expression of quantities
is a necessary fundamental skill. As we begin our journey into
chemistry, we will learn this skill so that errors—from
homework mistakes to traffic tickets to more serious
consequences—can be avoided.
The study of chemistry will open your eyes to a fascinating
world. Chemical processes are continuously at work all around
us. They happen as you cook and eat food, strike a match,
shampoo your hair, and even read this page. Chemistry is
called the central science because a knowledge of chemical
Saylor URL: 6 principles is essential for other sciences. You might be
surprised at the extent to which chemistry pervades your life. 1.1 What Is Chemistry?
1. Define chemistry in relation to other sciences.
2. Identify the general steps in the scientific method.
Chemistry is the study of matter—what it consists of, what its
properties are, and how it changes. Being able to describe the
ingredients in a cake and how they change when the cake is
baked is called chemistry. Matter is anything that has mass
and takes up space—that is, anything that is physically real.
Some things are easily identified as matter—this book, for
example. Others are not so obvious. Because we move so easily
through air, we sometimes forget that it, too, is matter.
Chemistry is one branch of science. Science is the process by
which we learn about the natural universe by observing,
testing, and then generating models that explain our
observations. Because the physical universe is so vast, there
are many different branches of science (Figure 1.1 "The
Relationships between Some of the Major Branches of
Science"). Thus, chemistry is the study of matter, biology is the
study of living things, and geology is the study of rocks and the
earth. Mathematics is the language of science, and we will use
it to communicate some of the ideas of chemistry.
Saylor URL: 7 Although we divide science into different fields, there is much
overlap among them. For example, some biologists and
chemists work in both fields so much that their work is called
biochemistry. Similarly, geology and chemistry overlap in the
field called geochemistry. Figure 1.1 "The Relationships
between Some of the Major Branches of Science" shows how
many of the individual fields of science are related.
Figure 1.1 The Relationships between Some of the Major
Branches of Science Saylor.org
Saylor URL: 8 Chemistry lies more or less in the middle, which emphasizes
its importance to many branches of science. Note
There are many other fields of science, in addition to the ones
(biology, medicine, etc.) listed here. Looking Closer: Alchemy
As our understanding of the universe has changed over time,
so has the practice of science. Chemistry in its modern form,
based on principles that we consider valid today, was
developed in the 1600s and 1700s. Before that, the study of
matter was known as alchemy and was practiced mainly in
China, Arabia, Egypt, and Europe.
Alchemy was a somewhat mystical and secretive approach to
learning how to manipulate matter. Practitioners, called
alchemists, thought that all matter was composed of different
proportions of the four basic elements—fire, water, earth, and
air—and believed that if you changed the relative proportions
of these elements in a substance, you could change the
substance. The long-standing attempts to “transmute”
common metals into gold represented one goal of alchemy.
Alchemy’s other major goal was to synthesize the philosopher’s
stone, a material that could impart long life—even immortality.
Alchemists used symbols to represent substances, some of
which are shown in the accompanying figure. This was not
done to better communicate ideas, as chemists do today, but to
maintain the secrecy of alchemical knowledge, keeping others
from sharing in it.
Saylor URL: 9 In spite of this secrecy, in its time alchemy was respected as a
serious, scholarly endeavor. Isaac Newton, the great
mathematician and physicist, was also an alchemist.
E XAM PLE 1 Which fields of study are branches of science? Explain.
Solution 1. Sculpture is not considered a science because it is not a
study of some aspect of the natural universe.
2. Astronomy is the study of stars and planets, which are part
of the natural universe. Astronomy is therefore a field of
S K ILL - BUIL DIN G E XE RCISE Which fields of study are branches of science?
2. physiology (the study of the function of an animal’s or a
Saylor URL: 10 How do scientists work? Generally, they follow a process called
the scientific method. The scientific method is an organized
procedure for learning answers to questions. To find the
answer to a question (for example, “Why do birds fly toward
Earth’s equator during the cold months?”), a scientist goes
through the following steps, which are also illustrated in Figure
1.2 "The General Steps of the Scientific Method":
Figure 1.2 The General Steps of the Scientific Method The steps may not be as clear-cut in real life as described
here, but most scientific work follows this general outline.
1. Propose a hypothesis. A scientist generates a testable
idea, or hypothesis, to try to answer a question or explain
Saylor URL: 11 how the natural universe works. Some people use the
word theory in place of hypothesis, but the word
hypothesis is the proper word in science. For scientific
applications, the word theory is a general statement that
describes a large set of observations and data. A theory
represents the highest level of scientific understanding.
2. Test the hypothesis. A scientist evaluates the
hypothesis by devising and carrying out experiments to
test it. If the hypothesis passes the test, it may be a proper
answer to the question. If the hypothesis does not pass
the test, it may not be a good answer.
3. Refine the hypothesis if necessary. Depending on
the results of experiments, a scientist may want to modify
the hypothesis and then test it again. Sometimes the
results show the original hypothesis to be completely
wrong, in which case a scientist will have to devise a new
Not all scientific investigations are simple enough to be
separated into these three discrete steps. But these steps
represent the general method by which scientists learn about
our natural universe. CONCEPT REVIEW EXERC ISES
1. Define science and chemistry.
2. Name the steps of the scientific method. ANSWERS
Saylor URL: 12 1. Science is a process by which we learn about the natural
universe by observing, testing, and then generating models
that explain our observations. Chemistry is the study of
2. propose a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, and refine the
hypothesis if necessary KEY TAKEAWAYS Chemistry is the study of matter and how it behaves.
The scientific method is the general process by which we learn
about the natural universe. EXERCISES
1. Based on what you know, which fields are branches of
a. meteorology (the study of weather)
b. astrophysics (the physics of planets and stars)
c. economics (the study of money and monetary systems)
d. astrology (the prediction of human events based on
planetary and star positions)
e. political science (the study of politics)
2. Based on what you know, which fields are a branches of
a. history (the study of past events)
b. ornithology (the study of birds)
c. paleontology (the study of fossils)
Saylor URL: 13 d. zoology (the study of animals)
e. phrenology (using the shape of the head to determine
3. Which of the following are examples of matter?
a. a baby
b. an idea
c. the Empire State Building
d. an emotion
e. the air
f. Alpha Centauri, the closest known star (excluding the sun)
to our solar system
4. Which of the following are examples of matter?
a. your textbook
b. brain cells
d. a can of soda
e. breakfast cereal
5. Suggest a name for the science that studies the physics of
rocks and the earth.
6. Suggest a name for the study of the physics of living
7. Engineering is the practical application of scientific principles
and discoveries to develop things that make our lives easier. Is
medicine science or engineering? Justify your answer.
Saylor URL: 14 8. Based on the definition of engineering in Exercise 7, would
building a bridge over a river or road be considered science or
engineering? Justify your answer.
9. When someone says, “I have a theory that excess salt causes
high blood pressure,” does that person really have a theory? If
it is not a theory, what is it?
10.When a person says, “My hypothesis is that excess calcium in
the diet causes kidney stones,” what does the person need to
do to determine if the hypothesis is correct?
11. Some people argue that many scientists accept many scientific
principles on faith. Using what you know about the scientific
method, how might you argue against that assertion?
12. Most students take multiple English classes in school. Does the
study of English use the scientific method? ANSWERS
not science 3. a. matter
Saylor URL: 15 b.
f. not matter
matter 5. geophysics
7. Medicine is probably closer to a field of engineering than a
field of science, but this may be arguable. Ask your doctor.
9. In scientific terms, this person has a hypothesis.
11. Science is based on reproducible facts, not blind belief. 1.2 The Classification of Matter
1. Use physical and chemical properties, including phase, to
2. Identify a sample of matter as an element, a compound, or a
Saylor URL: 16 Part of understanding matter is being able to describe it. One
way chemists describe matter is to assign different kinds of
properties to different categories. Physical and Chemical Properties
The properties that chemists use to describe matter fall into
two general categories. Physical properties are
characteristics that describe matter. They include
characteristics such as size, shape, color, and
mass. Chemical properties are characteristics that describe
how matter changes its chemical structure or composition. An
example of a chemical property is flammability—a material’s
ability to burn—because burning (also known as combustion)
changes the chemical composition of a material. Elements and Compounds
Any sample of matter that has the same physical and chemical
properties throughout the sample is called a substance. There
are two types of substances. A substance that cannot be broken
down into chemically simpler components is an element.
Aluminum, which is used in soda cans, is an element. A
substance that can be broken down into chemically simpler
components (because it has more than one element) is
acompound (Figure 1.2 "The General Steps of the Scientific
Method"). Water is a compound composed of the elements
hydrogen and oxygen. Today, there are about 118 elements in
the known universe. In contrast, scientists have identified tens
of millions of different compounds to date. Note
Saylor URL: 17 Sometimes the word pure is added to substance, but this is not
absolutely necessary. By definition, any single substance is
The smallest part of an element that maintains the identity of
that element is called an atom. Atoms are extremely tiny; to
make a line 1 inch long, you would need 217 million iron
atoms. The smallest part of a compound that maintains the
identity of that compound is called a molecule. Molecules are
composed of atoms that are attached together and behave as a
unit. Scientists usually work with millions and millions of
atoms and molecules at a time. When a scientist is working
with large numbers of atoms or molecules at a time, the
scientist is studying the macroscopic view of the universe.
However, scientists can also describe chemical events on the
level of individual atoms or molecules, which is referred to as
the microscopic viewpoint. We will see examples of both
macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints throughout this
book (Figure 1.3 "How Many Particles Are Needed for a Period
in a Sentence?").
Figure 1.3 How Many Particles Are Needed for a Period in a
Saylor URL: 18 Although we do not notice it from a macroscopic perspective,
matter is composed of microscopic particles so tiny that
billions of them are needed to make a speck we can see with
the naked eye. The ×25 and ×400,000,000 indicate the
number of times the image is magnified. Mixtures
A material composed of two or more substances is a mixture.
In a mixture, the individual substances maintain their
chemical identities. Many mixtures are obvious combinations
of two or more substances, such as a mixture of sand and
water. Such mixtures are called heterogeneous mixtures.
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