01 - networking basics notes

01 - networking basics notes - Vision Infosystems(VIS `...

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Vision Infosystems (VIS) `` Network Basics Topics Covered What is Network? Types of network topologies Network components Types of Network Chapter 1 Copyright ® 2004-2005 VISION INFOSYSTEMS [email protected]
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Vision Infosystems (VIS) Network Basics A network consists of two or more network devices like computers that are connected in order to share resources like files, folders, printers, etc. A network is linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams. A computer based network is divided into 3 categories: 1. Local Area Network (LAN) 2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 3. Wide Area Network (WAN) Local Area Network : A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network that is restricted to a relatively small area. It is generally limited to a geographic area such as a building, campus, etc. In a typical LAN network, computers are group using physical topology like BUS, STAR, RING, MESH, etc. Devices on LAN network uses Ethernet adapter for communication with each other. LAN is normally restricted from 100 to 500 meters. Metropolitan Area Network : A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) covers larger geographic areas, such as cities, areas, etc. By interconnecting smaller networks within a large geographic area, information is easily disseminated throughout the network. MAN is normally used by companies or organizations have multiple locations for business. MAN uses long distance technologies like broadband for communication.
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Vision Infosystems (VIS) Wide Area Network : Wide Area Networks (WANs) connect larger geographic areas, such as states, countries, etc. WAN too is used by multinational companies, organizations, etc. Internet can be a part of WAN network. To users, however, a WAN is similar to MAN network. Networking Components Networking Components includes all equipments that are needed to perform data-processing and communications within the network like NIC, HUB, Switch, etc. Network Interface Cards : The network interface card (NIC) provides the physical connection between the network and the computer workstation. NICs are normally used in LAN topologies like BUS, STAR, RING, etc. Now-a-days NIC provides speed at rate of 10/100/100 mbps and works at full/half duplex. HUB : It is multi port repeater that provides a central point of connection to all network devices like clients, servers and other devices. HUB is used in star topology using twisted pair cables. HUB works at layer 1 of OSI model. HUB uses broadcast method for packet forwarding. HUB does not maintain MAC table for efficient frame forwarding. Switch : Swtich is a layer 2 device that provides a central connection point for network devices like workstations, servers, and peripherals. Used in star topology, twisted-pair wire is run from each workstation to a central switch/hub. Switches are more intelligent then HUBs as switches maintain MAC table for efficient frame forwarding.
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