Quiz #1 Study Guide - Anthro Quiz#1 Study Guide Chapter 1...

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Anthro Quiz #1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Anthropology and its Applications - Anthropology offers a unique cross- cultural perspective, constantly comparing the customs of one society to those of others - Ethnography firsthand, personal study of a local setting (ie – “Love and Honor in the Himalayas”); provides an account of a particular community, society or culture (ethnographers study societies first hand, living with them and learning from ordinary people); fieldwork and date collection - Ethnology – examines, analyzes, and compares the results of ethnography, uses data to compare and contrast and to make generalizations about society and culture - Holistic – interested in the whole of the human condition: past, present and future; biology, society, language and culture; nothing can be taken as simply the sum of its parts - Society – organized life groups - Cultures traditions and customs, transmitted through learning that play a large role in determining the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them - Cultural traditions are transmitted through learning rather than biological inheritance - Anthropology attempts to answer major questions of human existence - General anthropology cultural (cultural diversity), biological (human biological diversity in time and space), archaeological (cultural patterns through material remains), linguistic (variation in time and space) - Applied anthropology application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems - Ethnocentrism tendency to view one’s own culture as superior and to apply one’s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other culture - Adaptation process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses Chapter 2: Ethics and Methods - anthropologists have obligations to their scholarly field, to the wider society and culture, and to the human species, other species and the environment - anthropologists should pay attention to proper relations between themselves as guests and the host nations and communities where they work - primary ethical obligation is to the people, species and materials being studied - systematic survey provides a regional perspective by gathering information on settlement patterns over a large area - excavation – digging through the layers of deposit that make up an archaeological site - participant observation – taking part in the events one is observing, describing and analyzing - ethnography emerges as a research strategy in societies with greater cultural uniformity and less
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