Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Kottak Notes Chapter 12 Making a...

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Kottak Notes Chapter 12: Making a Living - origin and spread of food production led to the formation of larger and more powerful social and political systems - Adaptive Strategies: o Describe a society’s system of economic production o Similar economic causes have similar sociocultural effects o Foraging --- people rely on nature to make their living; animal domestication and plant cultivation; modern foragers depend to some extent on government assistance; survived mainly in environments that posed major obstacles to food production so they weren’t desirable (marginality); mobility People who subsist by foraging often live in band- organized societies Band --- a small group all related by kinship of marriage Men typically hunt and fish while women gather and collect Make social distinctions based on age Thoughts on why people gave up foraging that have since been disproved: More efficient use of environment Domesticated crops taste better than wild plant food Cultivation requires less time Greater security than foraging o Horticulture --- cultivation that makes intensive use of non of the factors of production, instead using simple tools; slash and burn; also called shifting cultivation o Agriculture --- cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture does because it uses land intensively and continuously; requires human labor; sedentary; grow increasingly specialized Domesticated animals --- use animals as means of production Irrigation --- can schedule their planting in advance because they control the water o Pastoralism --- herders whose activities focus on domesticated animals; make direct use of their herd for food Nomadism --- entire group moves with the animals Transhumance --- part of the group moves with the herd but most stay in the home village - In non- industrial societies there is a more intimate relationship between the worker and the means of production than there is in industrial nations o People usually see their work through from start to finish and have a sense of accomplishment in the product o Relationship of coworkers --- usually kin, in-laws, etc. not just coworkers o Relations of production. Distribution and consumption are social relations with economic aspects; economy isn’t a separate entity but is embedded in the society - market principle --- governs the distribution of the means of production - redistribution --- operates when goods, services or their equivalent move from the local level to a center - reciprocity --- exchange between social equals who normally are related by kinship, marriage, etc.; dominant in more egalitarian societies o generalized reciprocity --- someone gives to another person and expects nothing in return o balanced reciprocity --- exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are members of the same band or household; giver expects something in return o negative reciprocity --- people outside or on the fringes of their social systems; exchanges
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Final Exam Study Guide - Kottak Notes Chapter 12 Making a...

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