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Anthro 101 Exam Terms - 1 Anthro 101 Exam Terms...

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Anthro 101 Exam Terms - acculturation – the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact - Acheulean – symmetrical and regular shape (makers knew what they wanted to make); versatile tools; first tools to be  made according to a set and regular pattern (template); took skill to make (Homo erectus had to learn to make these tools);  greater use of meat in the diet and hunting (hunting = new complexities for group relationships and social organization);  AFTER OLDOWAN - achieved status – social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments, rather  than ascription - Allele – biochemical difference involving a particular gene - Anthropoids – members of Anthropoidea, one of the two suborders of primates (monkeys, apes and humans); New  World monkeys, Old World monkeys, apes and humans; see the world in colors; social animals; supposed missing link  between humans and apes; grasping (5- digit hands and feet, opposable thumbs); sight more important than smell; touch  more important then smell; ratio of brain size to body size exceeds that of most mammals; parental investment; sociality  - Ardipithecus – origins of humankind emerge with ardipithecus/ earliest hominid (5-6 mya); just after the split between  chimpanzees and the line leading to Homo; beginning development of bipedalism - Ascribed status – social status that people have little or no choice about occupying (ie – gender, race) - Assimilation – process of change that a minority group may experience when it moves to a country where another  culture dominates; minority is incorporated into the dominant culture to the point that it no longer exists as a separate  cultural unit - Australopithecine – varied group of hominids with representatives categorized in several species (afarensis,  africanus, robustus, boisei, etc.); 4.2 – 1 million years ago; ancestors to Homo; early Homo coexisted with A. boisei for a  million years; dentition; full bipedalism - Bipedalism – standing/ walking on two appendages; Homo erectus  - Chimpanzee – tool use (vary regionally, learned through social transmission); prey on other animals; territorial; live  over a large area and varied environments; omnivorous; live in communities;  - Cultural consultant – someone the ethnographer gets to know in the field, who teaches him or her about their society  and culture; informant - Cultural relativism – the position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect - culture
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