GEOG 100 Study Guide - GEOG 100 Study Guide(February 2007...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
GEOG 100 Study Guide (February 2007)  Abraham Ruef Abraham Ruef was a bright and ambitious San Francisco lawyer in the early twentieth century.  He also was the mastermind of an elaborate system of graft inside city  government.Wealthy public utility corporations hired Ruef as an attorney to represent their  interests before city officials. Ruef then passed on portions of his attorney's fees as  bribes. For example, the United Railroads of San Francisco sought an ordinance from the  city to convert its cable cars to electric trolleys. The company paid Ruef an attorney's fee  of $200,000. Ruef then divided $85,000 among the members of the city board of  supervisors who promptly voted to pass the ordinance. Similar corrupt dealings involved  gas, electric, telephone, and water companies. A group of public-spirited San Franciscans  demanded an end to such graft. They exposed and removed from office the corrupt city  officials. In a series of widely publicized trials, the executives of several utility companies  were charged with accepting bribes. None, however, was convicted. Of all the defendants,  Ruef alone ended up in state prison.  Appropriative Rights The number of appropriative rights continued to increase as agriculture and population centers  increased and ownership of land was transferred into private hands.  Until the early 1900s, appropriators – most of them miners and non-riparian farmers – had  simply taken control of and used what water they wanted. Sometimes a notice was filed with the  county recorder, but no formal permission was required from any administrative or judicial body. The conflicting nature of California’s dual water right system prompted numerous legal disputes.  Unlike appropriative users, riparian right holders were not required to put water to reasonable  and beneficial use. The clash of rights eventually resulted in a constitutional amendment (Article  X, Section 2 of the California Constitution) that requires all use of water is “reasonable and  beneficial.” These “beneficial uses” have included municipal and industrial uses, irrigation, hydroelectric  generation, and livestock watering. More recently, the concept has been broadened to include  recreational use, fish and wildlife protection, and enhancement and aesthetic enjoyment. Boosters With other elites, they conceived of the way they could extract value from the land Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times and the city's ultimate  booster Charles Dwight Willard George Wharton James
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Charles Fletcher Lummis a m é
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Sign up to access 24/7 study resources for your classes

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern