GEOG 100 Study Guide - GEOG 100 Study Guide(February 2007...

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GEOG 100 Study Guide (February 2007)  Abraham Ruef Abraham Ruef was a bright and ambitious San Francisco lawyer in the early twentieth century.  He also was the mastermind of an elaborate system of graft inside city  government.Wealthy public utility corporations hired Ruef as an attorney to represent their  interests before city officials. Ruef then passed on portions of his attorney's fees as  bribes. For example, the United Railroads of San Francisco sought an ordinance from the  city to convert its cable cars to electric trolleys. The company paid Ruef an attorney's fee  of $200,000. Ruef then divided $85,000 among the members of the city board of  supervisors who promptly voted to pass the ordinance. Similar corrupt dealings involved  gas, electric, telephone, and water companies. A group of public-spirited San Franciscans  demanded an end to such graft. They exposed and removed from office the corrupt city  officials. In a series of widely publicized trials, the executives of several utility companies  were charged with accepting bribes. None, however, was convicted. Of all the defendants,  Ruef alone ended up in state prison.  Appropriative Rights The number of appropriative rights continued to increase as agriculture and population centers  increased and ownership of land was transferred into private hands.  Until the early 1900s, appropriators – most of them miners and non-riparian farmers – had  simply taken control of and used what water they wanted. Sometimes a notice was filed with the  county recorder, but no formal permission was required from any administrative or judicial body. The conflicting nature of California’s dual water right system prompted numerous legal disputes.  Unlike appropriative users, riparian right holders were not required to put water to reasonable  and beneficial use. The clash of rights eventually resulted in a constitutional amendment (Article  X, Section 2 of the California Constitution) that requires all use of water is “reasonable and  beneficial.” These “beneficial uses” have included municipal and industrial uses, irrigation, hydroelectric  generation, and livestock watering. More recently, the concept has been broadened to include  recreational use, fish and wildlife protection, and enhancement and aesthetic enjoyment. Boosters With other elites, they conceived of the way they could extract value from the land Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times and the city's ultimate  booster Charles Dwight Willard George Wharton James
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Charles Fletcher Lummis a m é
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