I.The Enlightenment a.Enlightenment was revolutionary because people were no longer relying on the theological texts/ authority b.Enlight values and attitudes: Optimism: emphasis on scientific inquiry, rational thought. Deism c.Enlightenment thinkers set the foundation for the founding fathers of the US constitution and democratic thought. Galileo: Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World • Kepler: Planets revolve in ellipses • Copernicus: Planets revolve around the sun• Descartes: What can we really know? Doubts phil. foundations • Newton: Differential calculus Newtonian Science, Principia Mathematica • Locke: Essay Concerning Human Understanding • Hume: A Treatise on Human Natured.Essential texts to the enlightenment: The EncyclopedieII.Descartesa.Who was Descartes? Rationalist & Dualist What did he write? Meditations on First Philosophy, Discourse on Methods b.Rationalist: Reason is the source of knowledge Empiricism: experience is the reason of knowledge c.