PPT_Chapter_20 - Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents Chapter 20 Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams Wilkins Types of Anxiolytic and

PPT_Chapter_20 - Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents Chapter 20...

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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents Chapter 20
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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Types of Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents Anxiolytics Prevent feelings of tension or fear Sedatives Calm and make patients unaware of the environment Hypnotics Cause sleep Minor Tranquilizers Produce a state of tranquility in anxious patients
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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Psychological States Affected by Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Drugs Anxiety Feeling of tension, nervousness, apprehension, or fear involving unpleasant reactions to a stimulus Sedation Loss of awareness and reaction to environmental stimuli Hypnosis Extreme sedation resulting in further CNS depression and sleep
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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Sites of Action of Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates and Other Anxiolytics
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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Benzodiazepine: Action Act in the limbic system and the RAS Make GABA more effective Causes interference with neurons firing Lower doses cause anxiolytic effects Higher doses cause sedation and hypnosis
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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Benzodiazepine: Indications Anxiety disorders Alcohol withdrawal Hyperexcitability and agitation Preoperative relief of anxiety and tension
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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Benzodiazepine: Pharmacokinetics Well absorbed from GI tract Peak levels achieved in 30 minutes to 2 hours Lipid soluble and distributes well throughout the body Cross placenta Enter breast milk Metabolized in the liver Excretion is primarily in the urine
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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Benzodiazepine: Contraindications and Cautions Allergy to benzodiazepine Psychosis Acute narrow angle glaucoma Shock Coma Acute alcohol intoxication Pregnancy
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