ch. 1 - Overview of Nutrition 1. What is the Science of...

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Unformatted text preview: Overview of Nutrition 1. What is the Science of Nutrition? 2. How are nutrients classified? 3. What are the General Functions of nutrients? 4. How can you know if you are getting enough? 5. How can you use scientific research to determine nutrient needs? Nutrition • “The science of foods and the nutrients and other substances they contain, and of their actions within the body (including ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion)” Social Economic Cultural psychological NUTRIENTS Chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulatory agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body’s tissues Classification of Nutrients Nutrients Energy Growth & Development Regulate Body Processes Carbohydrates X Proteins X X X Lipids X X X Vitamins X X Minerals X X Water X X • Essential nutrients – Omission leads to decline in human health. – Restoring the nutrient in time corrects the problem. – A specific biological function must be identified. Other Classifications of Nutrients • Organic Compounds Any substance that contains carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms in the chemical structure. • Inorganic Compounds Any substance lacking carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms in the chemical structure Carbohydrates • Composed of C, H, O • Provide a major source of fuel for the body • Basic unit is glucose • Simple and Complex CHO • Energy yielding (4 kcal /gm) Lipids (Fats and Oils) • Composed of C, H and few O • Energy yielding (9 kcal /gm) Proteins • Composed of C, H, 0, N • Basic unit is amino acid • Makes up bones, muscles, other tissues • (9) Essential amino acid • (11) Nonessential amino acid • Energy yielding (4 kcal /gm) Calorie – Unit by which energy is measured. Food energy is measured in kilocalories (1000 calories = 1 kilocalorie), abbreviated kcalories or kcal. A capitalized version is also sometimes used: Calories. One kcal is the amount of heat needed to raise the temp. of 1 kg of water 1°C “Calories” on nutrition label are in kcal Calculation of Contribution to Total kcals • One day’s intake (1980 kcal) • 290 gm of CHO (x 4) = 1160 kcal • 60 gm of fat (x 9) = 540 kcal • 70 gm of protein (x 4) = 280 kcal • % of kcal as CHO= 1160/1980 = 59% • % of kcal as Fat= 540/1980 = 27% • % of kcal as PRO= 280/1980 = 14% International System of Units (SI) • In addition to using the metric system, the SI establishes common units of measurement. • The SI unit of measuring food energy is the joule (not the kcal). • 1 kcal = 4.18 kj. Vitamins • Composed of various elements • Vital to life • Needed in tiny amounts • Cooking loss • Fat soluble • Water soluble • Yields no energy Vitamins may be divided into two groups • Water Soluble – Thiamin – Riboflavin – Niacin – Pantothenic acid – Biotin – B 6 – B 12 – Folate – C • Fat Soluble • A • D • E • K Minerals...
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2008 for the course HUN 1201 taught by Professor Razsaadat during the Fall '08 term at FSU.

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ch. 1 - Overview of Nutrition 1. What is the Science of...

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