ch8 9 - Energy Balance and Weight Control Energy Balance...

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Energy Balance and Weight Control
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Energy Balance State in which energy intake, in the form of food and /or alcohol, matches the energy expended, primarily through basal metabolism and physical activity” Positive energy balance Energy intake > energy expended Results in weight gain Negative energy balance Energy intake < energy expended Results in weight loss
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Estimating Kcal Content in Food Bomb calorimeter Burns food inside a chamber surrounded by water Heat is given off as food is burned The increase in water temperature indicates the amount of energy in the food
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Kilocalorie The heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1000 grams (1L) of water 1 degree Celcius.
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Energy In Vs. Energy Out Basal Metabolism Dietary Intake Physical Activity Thermic Effect of Food THREE CATEGORIES OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE
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Basal Metabolism The minimum energy expended to keep a resting, awake body alive ~60-70% of the total energy needs Includes energy needed for maintaining a heartbeat, respiration, body temperature Amount of energy needed varies between individuals
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Influences On Basal Metabolism Body surface area (weight, height) Gender Lean body mass Body temperature Thyroid hormone Nervous system activity Age Kcal intake Pregnancy Use of caffeine and tobacco
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Physical Activity Increases energy expenditure beyond BMR Varies widely among individuals More activity, more energy burned Lack of activity is the major cause of obesity
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Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) Energy used to digest, absorb, and metabolize food nutrients “Sales tax” of total energy consumed ~5-10% above the total energy consumed TEF is higher for protein than for CHO and fat
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Thermogenesis Nonvoluntary physical activity triggered by overeating or cold environment Fidgeting, shivering, maintenance of muscle tone, posture Increases in the sympathetic nervous system activity Resists weight gain
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Measurement of Body’s Energy Needs Direct calorimetry Measures heat output from the body using an insulated chamber Expensive and complex
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Indirect Calorimetry Measures the amount of oxygen a person uses A relationship exists between the body’s use of energy and oxygen
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What is a Healthy Body Weight? Based on how you feel, weight history, fat
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2008 for the course HUN 1201 taught by Professor Razsaadat during the Fall '08 term at FSU.

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ch8 9 - Energy Balance and Weight Control Energy Balance...

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