Native Born Whites, initiated independence. Creoles generally owned land, but
Peninsulars had higher social ranks. Division between Creoles and Peninsulars, bc
Bourbon reforms, Creoles out of power. Napoleon appoints new Spanish King (Joseph)
Creoles reject new Spanish King, Support old king through agents in Colonies.
Creole conspiracy in Mexico’s northern mining region. Radical Creole Priest.
Mexico. 1810. Presented Creoles vs. Peninsulars as America vs. Spain. Riled up
indigenous people. Captured and executed. Identified with Indians. Indigeneous Army of
80,000 v. disorganized and v. violent.
Grito De Dolores:
September 16, 1810. First Shout for Independence. “Long Live the
Virgin of Guadalupe and death to the Spaniards!” Dichotomy of Hidalgo’s battle.
America v. Spain
political attitude pitting all those of native birth against those born elsewhere.
Nativist attitudes prompted by patriots during independence wars, part of early
development of nationalism. Nativism attitude of prejudice against poor immigrants in
“The Liberator” Leader of Spanish American independence. Began
string of triumphs in 1817. Bolivar participated in Venezuelan independence struggle
from the start. Impressed llaneros (tropical cowboys), by using feats of physical prowess.
Used llaneros, natives to gain support for his cause. August 1819, army of llaneros,
climbed andes and attacked Spanish forces from behind. 1822, controlled Caracas,
Bogota, and Quito, controlled all of northern south America. Independence. 1825, had 5
nations independent. Bolivia named after him. Lead final assault against Spanish
his father was the king of Portugal, who moved his court to Rio when French
attacked. Pedro left in 1821 to watch the Brazilian situation. Pedro told by father to lead
revolution. Pedro declared Brazil independent, monarchy preserved, Brazil kept in royal
family. When Portuguese assembly demanded Pedro back as well, Pedro declared Brazil
an independent constiutional monarchy with himself as monarch. Became Emperor of
Brazil. Brazil independent, with same social hierarchy.
Son of Pedro I, Pedro I left him in Brazil. Liberals make him the ruler, he is
very young child. Great admirer of US and scientific advancement. Read multiple
languages. Inventor, author, teacher, traveled widely. “Modernization” Based on
European fashion. Cleared slums, mandatory vaccinations. Poster child of Positivism.