Study Guide - E3 Online

Study Guide - E3 Online - Study Guide Cognitive Psychology...

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Study Guide Cognitive Psychology (Exam 3) 1. Why are concrete words remembered better than abstract words? Be sure to tie in Pavio’s dual coding theory. They can be imaged, and visual info has a memory advantage over verbal info. Pavio argues that our mind independently codes for both verbal and visual info. His theory, in fact, is referred to as the dual coding theory. The bottom line is that a concrete word like juggler will be coded twice in memory – once for the verbal word and once for the image that the word creates – while an abstract word like truth will be coded only once – for the verbal word, because it’s difficult to image/visualize truth. In essence, two codes are better than one. 2. List 3 things/factoids that you know about how real images are stored in the mind. Be sure to provide 1 piece of evidence to support one of your facts . Research shows that stored images do not maintain every little detail from the real thing. In fact, a lot of evidence indicates that people have relatively poor memory for image details. research shows that images are stored by gist/theme. That is, meaning plays a big role, and that stored images tend to only maintain the important or relevant aspects of the original picture. Take, for example, the results of an experiment conducted by Chambers & Reisberg (1992). I refer to this as the duck/rabbit study. Research shows a lot of evidence for top-down processing in image storage. In other words, a stored image tends to have some “missing” details filled in. 3. What is a false memory? Describe 2 things (factors) that increase the possibility of creating a false memory. A false memory is a memory for an event that didn’t occur. Long delays between the event and one’s attempt to remember the event. Repeated suggestions that the event occurred. 4. How do good and poor imagers compare in terms of their susceptibility to creating a false memory? Be sure to cite some research evidence supporting your answer. Good imagers are more susceptible than poor imagers. 5. Distinguish between analogue and propositional image representations. Be sure to use an example to contrast the two. An analogue representation is an actual copy. A propositional representation is a bit more abstract. An example of analogue would be a copied print out of this study guide. A propositional image would be the image of the study guide on the computer. 6. How do the link, keyword, and method of loci systems of mnemonic strategies differ? Be sure to describe the procedures/steps involved in these 3 different strategies. link system, a mnemonic that uses imagery, and an excellent strategy to use for serial learning tasks. Also referred to as the chain system, the link system requires that you first form a visual image of each item in the, and second, associate the image for each item with the image for the next item. keyword system, and it’s basically another paired-associate learning task. Here’s how it works. First, you have to associate the spoken foreign word with an
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Study Guide - E3 Online - Study Guide Cognitive Psychology...

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