Lifespan Human Development

Lifespan Human Development - Human Development Across the...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Human Development Across the lifespan
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What is Development? n Systematic process of adaptive change, and continuities, in one or more directions from conception until death ¨ Result of learning or maturation ¨ Involves change and stability ¨ Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional
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Periods of development n Prenatal Conception to birth n Infancy Birth to 2 years n Early childhood 2 to 6 years n Middle childhood 7 to 11 years n Adolescence 11 to 18-20 years n Early adulthood 20 to 40 years n Middle adulthood41 to 65 years n Late adulthood 66 years and older
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Other divisions n Emerging adulthood18-20s n Young-old 60-75 n Old-old 75+
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Basic Issues in Development n Nature or nurture n Active or passive n Continuous or discontinuous n Universal or context-specific
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Which is more important, nature or nurture? n Adopted children whose biological parents had antisocial personality disorder were more likely to be hostile and antisocial than adopted children from untroubled biological parents (Ge et al., 1996) n Inherited characteristics ¨ Difficult temperaments ¨ Problems with emotional control ¨ Impulsivity
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Nurture n How might these inherited characteristics affect the environment? n Nature and nurture – interactionist view
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Physical Development
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Prenatal period n Germinal stage ¨ 2 weeks post conception n Embryonic stage ¨ Prenatal weeks 2 through 8 n Fetal stage ¨ Prenatal weeks 8 until birth (about 40 weeks)
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Teratogens n Any agent, such as disease, drugs, or chemicals, that cause damage to a developing fetus n Crucial factors are timing, amount, and length of exposure n Rubella (German measles), thalidomide, and alcohol are known teratogens
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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome n Leading cause of preventable mental retardation and birth defects n Occurs in .2 to 1.5 in 1000 births in US n Rates of fetal alcohol effects three times higher than FAS n alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) n learning, memory, attention span, communication, vision, hearing, or a combination of these n Permanent condition n http://www.cdc.gov/NCBDDD/fas/fasask.htm
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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) n Small size for gestational age or small stature in relation to peers n Facial abnormalities such as small eye openings n Poor coordination n Hyperactive behavior n Learning disabilities n Developmental disabilities (e.g., speech and language delays) n Mental retardation or low IQ n Problems with daily living n Poor reasoning and judgment skills n Sleep and sucking disturbances in infancy http://www.cdc.gov/NCBDDD/fas/fasask.htm
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Illnesses n Influenza ¨ In second trimester, may increase risk for schizophrenia in later life n Rubella (German measles) ¨ Birth defects n Blindness n Mental retardation n Heart defects n Deafness
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Toxoplasmosis n Parasite Toxoplasma gondii n Causes brain damage, blindness, and deafness especially if exposed early in pregnancy
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This note was uploaded on 06/16/2008 for the course PSY 201 taught by Professor Skaggs during the Fall '07 term at Oregon State.

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Lifespan Human Development - Human Development Across the...

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