Ornithology ECOL484 spring 2007 Problem set answer key 1.Define each of these terms (each worth ½ pt): •oviparous Species in which young born from eggs that hatch outside of their mother’s body. Development happens externally. •parental care Time, energy, behaviors of parents that increase survival of young. •parental investment Parental care that involves a cost—when increase in care decreases either the survival or future reproductive abilities of that individual. •life history trait A trait that directly influences an individual’s fitness, trades-off directly with other life-history traits. •life history strategy The complete set of interrelated life history traits, decisions, trade-offs possessed/made by an individual. •siblicide Murder of ones’ brothers and sisters. •parent-offspring conflict Occurs when the interests of parents and offspring are not perfectly aligned. When fitness of one party (e.g., parents) can be maximized by a different set of behaviors than those behaviors that maximize the fitness of the other party (e.g., offspring, or vice versa). •male-female conflict Occurs when the interests of male and females are not perfectly aligned. When fitness of males can be maximized by a different set of behaviors than those behaviors that maximize the fitness of females and vice versa. •certainty of paternity An estimate by males of how likely any given chick is to be his genetic offspring. Females, have close to 100% certainty of maternity (except when brood parasitism occurs). In males, certainty of paternity can vary widely and individuals must use indirect evidence to gauge level of certainty. •principle of allocation Because time and energy are not infinite, allocating time and energy to one life history trait (component of fitness) means sacrificing another. An individual is constantly making allocation decisions to life history traits. •reproductive value A property of an individual at a specific time in life. It is the estimated contribution of that individual’s current and future offspring to the population, relative to other individuals. •residual reproductive value /6
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