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Sensitivity to wheat, gluten and FODMAPs in IBS:facts orfiction?178.ABSTRACTIBS is one of the most common types of functional boweldisorder. Increasing attention has been paid to thecausative role of food in IBS. Food ingestion precipitates orexacerbates symptoms, such as abdominal pain andbloating in patients with IBS through differenthypothesised mechanisms including immune and mast cellactivation, mechanoreceptor stimulation andchemosensory activation. Wheat is regarded as one of themost relevant IBS triggers, although which component(s)of this cereal is/are involved remain(s) unknown. Gluten,other wheat proteins, for example, amylase-trypsininhibitors, and fructans (the latter belonging tofermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols(FODMAPs)), have been identified as possible factors forsymptom generation/exacerbation. This uncertainty on thetrue culprit(s) opened a scenario of semantic definitionsfavoured by the discordant results of double-blindplacebo-controlled trials, which have generated variousterms ranging from non-coeliac gluten sensitivity to thebroader one of non-coeliac wheat or wheat proteinsensitivity or, even, FODMAP sensitivity. The role ofFODMAPs in eliciting the clinical picture of IBS goesfurther since these short-chain carbohydrates are found inmany other dietary components, including vegetables andfruits. In this review, we assessed current literature in orderto unravel whether gluten/wheat/FODMAP sensitivityrepresent‘facts’and not‘fiction’in IBS symptoms. Thisknowledge is expected to promote standardisation indietary strategies (gluten/wheat-free and low FODMAP) aseffective measures for the management of IBS symptoms.INTRODUCTIONIBS can be considered the prototype of all func-tionalboweldisordersforitshighprevalenceworldwideandimpactonpatients’qualityoflife.12Patients with IBS suffer from abdominalpain ordiscomfortassociatedwith bowelhabitchanges. In the absence of established biomarkers,for which research is actively ongoing, the diagno-sis relies upon symptom evaluation according tothe well-known Rome III criteria, which are cur-rentlythebenchmarkforIBSidentification.