Chapter 1 Notes - Anatomy The Study of Form Human anatomy...

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Anatomy - The Study of Form Human anatomy is the study of the structure (and shape) of the human body. It provides an essential foundation for the understanding of physiology, the study of function; anatomy and physiology together are the bedrock of the health sciences. Examining structure of the Human Body o Inspection – evaluation by looking at appearance (ex. Liver cancer = person have yellow eyes) performing a physical examination by touching and listening or making a clinical diagnosis from surface appearance o Palpation – pressing down on certain regions of the body (if you feel something, ex. Checking breasts to feel if there is a lump which may indicate breast cancer) feeling a structure with the hands, such as palpating a swollen lymph node or taking a pulse Cadaver dissection o Cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships o Dissection of a dead human body Comparative anatomy o Study of more than one species in order to examine structural similarities and differences, and analyze evolutionary trends o Looking at evolution, coming from lower organisms to something bigger o Anatomy students often begin by dissecting other animals with which we share a common ancestry and many structural similarities. Indeed, many of the reasons for human structure become apparent only when we look at the structure of other animals. o Animal drug testing o Animal surgeon or dissection Medical imaging o Viewing the inside of the body without surgery o Radiology – branch of medicine concerned with imaging Noninvasive if they do not involve any penetration of the skin or body orifices Invasive imaging techniques may entail inserting ultrasound probes into the esophagus, vagina, or rectum to get closer to the organ to be imaged, or injecting substances into the bloodstream or body passages to enhance image formation
o Once common to diagnose disorders through exploratory surgery —opening the body and taking a look inside to see what was wrong and what could be done about it…replaced by medical imaging Gross Anatomy o Study of structures that can be seen with the naked eye o Using methods such as surface observation, dissection (cutting of the body), X-rays, and MRI scans o Surface anatomy, Radiologic anatomy, Systemic anatomy, Regional anatomy Cytology o Study of structure and function of [actual] cells o In order for cytologic evaluation to be carried out, the material to be examined is spread onto glass slides and stained Histology (microscopic anatomy) o Examination of [tissue] cells with microscope [study of group of cells with similar functions] o Ultimately, the structure and function of the body result from its individual cells. To see those, we usually take tissue specimens, thinly slice and stain them, and observe them under the microscope.

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