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Anatomy - The Study of Form Human anatomy is the study of the structure (and shape) of the human body. It provides an essential foundation for the understanding of physiology, the study of function; anatomy and physiology together are the bedrock of the health sciences.Examining structure of the Human BodyoInspection – evaluation by looking at appearance (ex. Liver cancer = person have yellow eyes)performing a physical examination by touching and listening or making a clinical diagnosis from surface appearanceoPalpation – pressing down on certain regions of the body (if you feel something, ex. Checking breasts to feel ifthere is a lump which may indicate breast cancer) feeling a structure with the hands, such as palpating a swollen lymph node or taking a pulseCadaver dissection oCutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships oDissection of a dead human bodyComparative anatomy oStudy of more than one species in order to examine structural similarities and differences, and analyze evolutionary trends oLooking at evolution, coming from lower organisms to something biggeroAnatomy students often begin by dissecting other animals with which we share a common ancestry and many structural similarities. Indeed, many of the reasons for human structure become apparent only when we look at the structure of other animals.oAnimal drug testingoAnimal surgeon or dissectionMedical imaging oViewing the inside of the body without surgery oRadiology – branch of medicine concerned with imaging Noninvasive if they do not involve any penetration of the skin or body orificesInvasive imaging techniques may entail inserting ultrasound probes into the esophagus, vagina, or rectum to get closer to the organ to be imaged, or injecting substances into the bloodstream or body passages to enhance image formation
oOnce common to diagnose disorders through exploratory surgery —opening the body and taking a look inside to see what was wrong and what could be done about it…replaced by medical imagingGross Anatomy oStudy of structures that can be seen with the naked eye oUsing methods such as surface observation, dissection (cutting of the body), X-rays, and MRI scansoSurface anatomy, Radiologic anatomy, Systemic anatomy, Regional anatomyCytology oStudy of structure and function of [actual] cells oIn order for cytologic evaluation to be carried out, the material to be examined is spread onto glass slides andstainedHistology (microscopic anatomy) oExamination of [tissue] cells with microscope [study of group of cells with similar functions]oUltimately, the structure and function of the body result from its individual cells. To see those, we usually taketissue specimens, thinly slice and stain them, and observe them under the microscope.