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Anthropology Study Guide 1

Anthropology Study Guide 1 - Anthropology Study Guide Exam...

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Anthropology Study Guide – Exam 1 Anthropology: study of humans Anthrop: man Ology - study of Cultural: Linguistic: language and use Archeology: use of material remains to study past Physical/Biological: study of human biology w/in the framework of evolution Skeletal: Forensic Anthropologists: Primatology: study of primates Paleoanthropology: study of human fossil record (dates back to 7 mill. Yrs. Ago) CELL TYPES Somatic: every cell in your body besides sex cells Gamete: sex/reproductive cells CELL STRUCTURE Cell Membrane: outer lining of the cell Nucleus: the control center of the cell – contains nuclear DNA Mitochondria: “power house” of the cell, can ONLY inherit from MOTHER Ribosome: part of cell where protein synthesis takes place Chromosome: rod shaped bodies containing the DNA. ONLY found in the nucleus of the cell 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs; 22 pairs of autosomes, 1 pair of sex chromosomes Locus: Centro mere: The point of attachment of the two strands of a double stranded chromosome Genes: strand of DNA “address” Structural: Regulatory: controls timing of process or phase for growing
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DNA: stores information, in double helix form Adenine – Thymine Cytosine – Guanine DNA Replication: Mitosis: cellular division in somatic cells Interphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase Meiosis: cellular division in gametes Prophase 1, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1, Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2 Spermatogenesis: process of forming a sperm cell – 4 haploid gametes. Begins at puberty - death Oogenesis: formation of an ovum. Begins during fetal stages –ends at birth. Protein Synthesis: DNA found in the nucleus contains instructions for making proteins needed by the body. The protein instructions must be sent from the nucleus out to the protein factory of the cell, but it cannot leave the nucleus. mRNA copies the recipe so it can be sent to the ribosomes.
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Anthropology Study Guide 1 - Anthropology Study Guide Exam...

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