Ghettos - Jewish Ghettos: 1939-1944 City of Lodz, Poland:...

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Unformatted text preview: Jewish Ghettos: 1939-1944 City of Lodz, Poland: Nazi occupied in 1939 672,000 residents 233,000 Jews Ghetto formally "sealed" May 1, 1940 Approx. 164,000 Jews living in Lodz Ghetto (many fled before ghetto was sealed) Largely a forcedlabor camp Deportations started in 1940 first to Chelmno death camp The Lodz Ghetto The Lodz Ghetto 70,000 Jews remained in Lodz in 1944 largest concentration of Jews left in Eastern Europe By August, 1944, all remaining Jews deported to Chelmno or Auschwitz Starvation & disease rampant Overcrowding, poor sanitation, and lack of food led to dysentery, cholera, and typhus Education still took place, although largely "underground" Children in the Lodz Ghetto Since the ghettos were largely forcedlabor camps, children were of little value to the Nazis Children were frequently deported to death camps or died of starvation or disease, as seen here in a photo from the Warsaw ghetto Children in the Lodz Ghetto The Lodz Ghetto is fairly unique in that its inhabitants attempted to keep Jewish children from being deported by using them as laborers in a variety of work details (e.g., sewing & paper factories) Chaim Rumkowski, Leader of the Judenrat in Lodz Ghetto Judenrat = Jewish Council As leader of the Judenrat, Rumkowski chose who would be deported "Sperre": September 912, 1942 Rumkowski was ordered to deport 15,000 Jews He claimed that to save some, he would have to turn over others: elderly & children "A grievous blow has struck the ghetto. They are asking us to give up the best we possess the children and the elderly. I was unworthy of having a child of my own, so I gave the best years of my life to children. I've lived and breathed with children, I never imagined I would be forced to deliver this sacrifice to the altar with my own hands. In my old age, I must stretch out my hands and beg: Brothers and sisters! Hand them over to me! Fathers and mothers: Give me your children!" Rumkowski, Sept. 1942 Deportations to Death Camps "A Boardinghouse" A boardinghouse they decided to build Oy vey, A boardinghouse they decided to build Oy vey, oy vey, oy vey. A boardinghouse, Oy vey, A boardinghouse, With music and a villa, Oy vey, oy vey, oy vey. Arbeit Macht Frei: "Work Makes You Free" ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/16/2008 for the course ENG 108 taught by Professor Fabbro during the Spring '08 term at Monroe CC.

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