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Cognitive theories

Cognitive theories - Categories Theories Behavioral 1...

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Categories Theories Main proposition Examples Behavioral Theories (S R) Cognitive Theories (S O R) 1. Classical conditioning theory Steps: US----------------- UR US+CS------------ UR CS----------------- CR 1. Pavlov’s example of dog salivating 2. A beer ad with attractive models 2. Operant conditioning theory Reward/positive reinforcement increases a certain behavior. Punishment/negative reinforcement decreases a certain behavior. e.g., If every time you call your friend on the phone, she yells at you, you will eventually stop calling her. a. Trait theories: Apprehension traits 1. Communication apprehension Traitlike CA Context-based CA Audience-based CA Situational CA Manifestation and consequence (p. 84) Fearful across situations, vs. in certain contexts (work), situations (being evaluated) 2. Receiver apprehension Presentation traits 1. Communicator style (Norton’s model focuses on how messages are communicated, not concerned with the content of messages) Communicator Image: Impression leaving; Contentious; Open; Dramatic; Dominant; Precise; Attentive; Animated 1
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2. Disclosiveness or Self-disclosure traits Reciprocity : if one person self-discloses, the other person also needs to share. Only in this way, can a conversation go on. Relationship : self-disclosure leads to the building of intimate relationships. Dimensions : Intent, Amount, Positiveness/negativeness, Depth, and Honesty. Adaptation traits 1. Rhetorical sensitivity theory by Hart Noble Self Rhetorical reflector Rhetorically sensitive speaker 2. Communication Competence theory by Spitzberg 1. Knowledge 2. Skill 3. Motivation The mark of a competent communicator is situationally appropriate communication. e.g., The degree of dynamism in a public situation vs.
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Cognitive theories - Categories Theories Behavioral 1...

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