COMM 200 final study guide

COMM 200 final study guide - COMM 200 Final Study Guide...

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COMM 200 – Final Study Guide Chapter 10 1. Weber’s Bureaucratic Theory Bureaucracy: o People who are above in hierarchy have power over lower o Dominant form of organization o *Positive feature of bureaucracy: Most efficient pattern for large, complex organization Features emphasized/focus: Power & Authority o Based on: Rules Spheres of competence/division of labor Hierarchy (i.e. military) Features neglected: o Individual: cog in a machine; feelings, goals, worries, self-esteem, etc. not treated as important factors. Leave problems at home when you come to work; can be replaced if work is not done o Communication neglected Communication in bureaucracy: o not stressed; consists of superiors giving orders to subordinates (interpersonal skills not needed) Outcomes of extreme bureaucracies: o Lower productivity o Less employee loyalty o Conflict between administration and workers 2. Hawthorne Effect Studies Studies conducted at Hawthorne Electric Plant (1925-1932) to determine optimum level of lighting for maximum productivity Researchers wanted to determine optimum level of lighting for maximum productivity o Results: productivity increased whether lighting was increased or decreased increase attributed to “Hawthorne Effect” which is attention from the researchers; workers feel they are watched and productivity increases o Consequences: human relations approach concern for people researchers asked workers to express views on wide variety of work- related issues; interviews helped workers to view jobs and organization positively and provided incentives to resolve problems o being allowed to express their views improved workers’ attitudes toward work o company tried to respond to complaints, which also improved attitudes
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COMM 200 – Final Study Guide Impact on Organizational Theory: o Began to realize importance of communication and human relations to productivity o Began to recognize importance of informal communication networks to productivity and attitudes 3. Likert’s Four Systems Theory --Human relations theory --Focus on concern for worker Four systems – vary in degree of authority and worker participation o System 1: exploitative – authoritative o System 2: benevolent – authoritative: if you do everything company wants, you are treated well o System 3: consultative: seek opinions of workers but decision is up to company o System 4: participative o Not effective in large corporations; Good for small companies o Workers and management discuss together o High satisfaction o Unfeasible to use participative management; cannot be implemented in large, complex organizations *Recommends consultative or participative management styles Communication in systems o Exploitative management: communication used to give orders with little/no upward communication; workers treated poorly o Benevolent management: no upward communication, but workers are treated well o Consultative management: wants to know how employees feel, but
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COMM 200 final study guide - COMM 200 Final Study Guide...

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