BIO1140 Chapter 3 - The Macromolecules of the Cell

BIO1140 Chapter 3 - The Macromolecules of the Cell -...

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Cellular Biology Chapter 3 – The Macromolecules of the Cell Introduction Polymers are synthesized by condensation reactions where activated monomers link together forming macromolecules (and removing a water molecule) Once synthesized the polymers fold and coil spontaneously into stable 3-D shapes They then associate with one another in a hierarchical manner to generate higher levels of structural complexity (with no further input of energy or information) o Hierarchical assembly – synthesis of biological structures from simple starting molecules to more complex molecules o Self assembly – principle that the information needed to specify the folding of macromolecules (and their interactions) to form complicated structures with specific functions is inherent o Molecular chaperones – protein hat facilitate the folding of other proteins but is not a component of the final folded structure o Assisted self-assembly – folding/assembly of proteins with the appropriate molecular chaperone to ensure that correct assembly occurs PROTEINS Types of Proteins Types Function Examples Enzymes Selective catalysis - Digestive enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the macromolecules in food Structural Support of cellular structures - Collagen and elastin provide the framework for animal connective tissues - Keratin is a protein which is found in hairs, horns, feathers, etc. Motility Movement of cell/cell parts - Actin and myosin are responsible for muscle movement - Tubulin is the main protein of cilia/ flagella Regulatory Regulation of cellular functions - Transcription factors (DNA-binding proteins) regulate the translation of genetic info Transport Transport of substances into/out/within of cells - Transport across membrane is mediated by specific transport proteins in membrane Hormonal Communication between distant parts of an organism - Insulin is secreted by the pancreases and regulated by the concentration of glucose in the blood Receptor Response of cells to chemical stimuli - Receptors in the membrane of nerve cells detect chemical signals released by other cells Defensive Protection against diseases - Antibodies detect and destroy bacteria and viruses Storage Storage and release of amino acids - Storage proteins in seeds are broken down during germination to release needed amino acids
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Cellular Biology Chapter 3 – The Macromolecules of the Cell The Monomers are Amino Acids
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BIO1140 Chapter 3 - The Macromolecules of the Cell -...

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