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PSY 1102 -- Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Intelligence...

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Chapter 11: Intelligence Intelligence tests : assess and compare a person’s mental abilities to others, by numerical scores The Origin of Intelligence Testing Plato, “no two persons are born exactly alike; but each differs from the other [naturally] each being suited to different occupation” Western attempts to assess individual differences began a century ago Alfred Binet (1857-1911): Predicting School Achievement Started the modern intelligence-testing movement When school became mandatory, educators soon realized there was a problem for children with special needs o Bias thoughts for cause: Inadequate prior education Social background Binet was appointed to predict school achievement (in the case of Parisian children) His Method: (1) objective test to identify children likely to have difficulty in regular classes (questions that predict children’s future progress) (2) measuring mental age (the age that corresponds to a given level of performance) His Assumption: all children follow the same course of intellectual development but some develop more rapidly *Note: he made no assumptions as to WHY children were slow His Conclusion: “Dull” children, were retarded in their development The objective test shows 1. “Dull” children perform like younger children
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2. “Bright” children perform like older children His Solution: Mental orthopaedics that would train kids to develop their attention span Lewis Terman A Stanford University professor who revised Binet’s test (mental age) for American Children His Method: (1) “Stanford-Binet”: extension of the upper end of the tests range from teenagers to “superior adults” His Assumption: (1) the use of intelligence tests would prevent the reproduction of “stupid” kids, and reduce crime, etc. (eugenics) (2) racial differences in intelligence (3) intelligence is inherited William Stern : The IQ Test IQ = mental age/ chronological age x 100 Average Child: IQ = 100 (mental and chronological age are the same) Bright Child: IQ = 125 (i.e. child of 8 has mental age of 10) THE PROBLEM Formula works well for children but not for adults - I.e. a 40yr old who gets 100 isn’t equal in intelligence to an 8 year old. THE SOLUTION Today’s Intelligence Test
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A mental ability score based on the persons performance relative to the average performance of others the same age What is Intelligence? - Psychologists define it as a concept , rather than something concrete ( Refication) (To “reifi” an IQ, is to imagine it to be a thing one has , rather than a score from a test) Intelligence: the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. Intelligence: One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? The Factor-Analysis Approach (Charles Spearman) Factor Analysis: enables researches to identify test items that measure a common ability i.e. a cluster that helps define a verbal intelligence factor; people who do well on vocabulary items also do well in paragraph comprehension.
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  • Winter '08
  • MARKOW
  • Intelligence quotient, Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence, Origin of Intelligence Testing, Intelligence Analytical

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