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PSY 1102 -- Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Psychological...

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Chapter 16: Psychological Disorders “To study the abnormal is the best way of understanding the normal” (William James) 1 in 5 Americans and Australians need psychiatric help in any given year 450 million people worldwide suffer psychological disorders 15.4% of the years of life lost due to mental disorders Perspectives on Psychological Disorders Defining Psychological Disorders Psychological disorders: a ‘harmful dysfunction’ in which behaviour is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable. Medical Model: the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and in the case of psychology cured through therapy. Abnormal vs. Disordered - athletes physical abilities = ABNORMAL - disturbing abnormal behaviour = DISORDER What is ‘disturbing’? (Abnormal + Disturbing) - Varies by culture - Varies over tim e (1800) Acton d efined orgas m (overstimulation) as a disorder (1900) Masters a nd Johnson defined lack of orgas m a disorder (Dece m b er 9 th 1973) Homosexuality an illness (December 10 th 1973) not an illness What is ‘maladaptive’? (Abnormal + Disturbing + Maladaptive) Maladaptive: when behaviour becomes disabling (1973) Nicotine dependence (addictive and self-destructive) What is ‘unjustifiable’? (Abnormal + Disturbing + Maladaptive + Unjustifiable) Unjustifiable: hearing voices when there really aren’t voices there
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Understanding Psychological Disorders (Middle Ages) madness = the devil T HE M EDICAL P ERSPECTIVE (1745 – 1826) Madness = sickness of the mind caused by severe stress/inhumane conditions - Realized there were physical causes for disorders when they noted syphilis infects the brain and distorts the mind Psychopathology: a mental illness that needs diagnosing on the basis of its symptoms and cured through therapy. (See medical model) T HE BIO - PSYCHO - SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE All behaviour – normal or disordered – arise from interaction of nature (genetic/psychological factors) and nurture (past/present experiences) B IO - EVOLUTION , GENES , BRAIN STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY P SYCHO - STRESS , TRAUMA , LEARNED HELPLESSNESS , MOOD - RELATED PERCEPTIONS AND MEMORIES S OCIAL - ROLES , EXPECTATIONS , WHAT IS NORMAL WHAT IS NOT E NVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS VARY WITH CULTURE I . E . ANOREXIA AND BULIMIA OCCURS MOST IN W ESTERN CULTURES I . E . S USTO ( SEVERE ANXIETY , RESTLESSNESS AND FEAR OF BLACK MAGIC ) OCCURS IN L ATIN A MERICA I . E . T AIJIN - KYOFUSHO ( FEAR OF EYE CONTACT , SOCIAL ANXIETY ) OCCURS IN J APAN Classifying Psychological Disorders American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) DSM-IV developed in coordination with WHO’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) DSM-IV M AJOR C ATEGORIES OF M ENTAL D ISORDER (17) Describes disorders and lists their prevalence (NOT CAUSES) Neurotic Disorders: distressing but allow one to think rationally and function socially.
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