discussion questions 1 - Biology 365R Discussion Questions...

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Biology 365R Discussion Questions 1 Objectives : To understand some really basic neuroanatomy. To learn about the blood-brain- barrier. 1. You should be able to define, identify, or discuss the following: cranial nerve spinal nerve gyrus – “hills” in cerebrum sulcus – troughs in cerebrum tract nucleus prosencephalon mesencephalon rhombencephalon telencephalon diencephalon tract CSF dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater, ventricles choroid plexus, central canal, subarachnoid space, arachnoid villi, meninges, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, olfactory bulb, cervical segment, thoracic segment, lumbar segment, astrocyte – star shaped glial cells In brain, maintain the blood brain barrier tight junction – membranes of adjacent cells join, forming impermeable barrier to fluid 2. What are the major parts of the mammalian CNS? Can you relate these to the diagram of the Schmoo brain represent? What is the embryonic origin of each of its parts? Can you explain in general terms how a simple neural tube becomes the complex CNS in the adult? Can you explain what happens to the lumen of the neural tube? CNS (brain and spinal cord)
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Arise from ectoderm of embryo after it gastrulates; A neural tube arises from neural tube running along anterior-posterior axis of animal Formation of CNS Lumen becomes ventricular system of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord; proliferation of cells thickens walls, giving rise to various brain swellings: Forebrain (prosencephalon) 1. Endbrain/telencephalon/cerebral hemispheres 2. Between brain/diencephalon Midbrain (mesencephalon) Hindbrain (rhombencephalon) 1. Pons + cerebellum 2. Medulla oblongata/mylencephalon Spinal Cord 3. Can you name and identify the major “lobes” of the cortex? What are the major landmarks that separate these lobes? Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal 4. What is meant by the term “blood-brain barrier”, what causes it, and what is its significance? Epithelial cells that make up capillaries in brain are joined by tight junctions; Glial endfeet from astrocytes provide biochemical support to endothelial cells -molecules that aren’t lipid soluble must pass through these epithelial cells to move into extracellular space of the brain Function: Buffer brain from changes in rest of body Consequences: Because brain cut off, antibodies are too large to cross BBB, infections deadly 5. Define the following: contralateral, ipsilateral, decussation Contralateral – on opposite side to structure (ex. Left and right) Ipsilateral – On the same side as another structure (ex. Left arm and left leg) Decussation – Intersecting/crossover of structures 6. What is meant by the term receptive field? What do you think determines the size of a sensory neuron’s receptive field? Region of space in which the presence of a stimulus will alter the firing of the neuron.
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discussion questions 1 - Biology 365R Discussion Questions...

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