EAS328_Lect3_ExtratropicalCyclones_Part2 - EAS 328 Natural...

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Unformatted text preview: EAS 328: Natural Environmental Hazards Lecture Slides for Tuesday, Feb 9, 2016 PART 2: Extratropical Cyclone Impacts Outline: Impacts Topics: Rain, Snow, Ice, Winds 1.  Details for rain (including Atmospheric Rivers) 2.  Details for Northeast Snowstorms 3.  Details for Ice storm physics 4.  Details for winds Review of some facts from part 1: •  Form over land or water in temperate regions (30°–70° laXtude) •  Associated with fronts and cool central cores •  Strong windstorms, heavy rains, surges, snowstorms, blizzards •  Most do not produce severe weather •  Derive energy from temperature contrasts along fronts NEW INFORMATION The NWS started giving names to Extratropical cyclones in 2013, as is done with hurricanes. The pracXce of naming ETCs has been going on in Europe for 40+ years. Flooding from Extratropical Cyclones Only a small set of ETC (~10%) cause flooding For NYC flooding, the storm usually has to take a path such that the warm sector and then the enXre cold front pass over the city (think of the cold front like a saw cu`ng up along the city). Flooding ETCs is more common in mountain regions: enhanced orographic precipitaXon. Flooding from ETCs oaen coincides with a slow moving storm (in general ETCs move faster than TCs, but the winds within the storm are weaker for ETCs than TCs). Flooding on West coast of N. America and Europe usually requires a extremely strong northward flux of moisture, referred to as “atmospheric rivers”. The Pineapple Express Feeding Moisture to West Coast Extratropical Cyclone Satellite Image of atmospheric column-­‐integrated water vapor hfp:// Ohio Valley Flooding from ETCs Top: wind and moisture flux (in mm/day) anomalies. Bo4om: Pressure anomalies and verXcal velocity on pressure levels (hPa day-­‐1) SNOW STORMS IN THE NORTHEAST Winds and Snow can cause: •  downed trees •  downed power lines •   school closings •  work stoppage “Snowtober” Across the Northeast, more than 2.2 million customers remained without power 3 days later. Downed tree on Metro-­‐North Why was this storm so bad in terms of damage? There was heavy snow falling during mid-­‐autumn when the trees sXll have all of their leaves SNOW STORMS IN THE NORTHEAST Data shown for the cold season: (Nov – May) Source: Ucellini and Kocin (true for next 6 slides) SNOW STORMS IN THE NORTHEAST MulX-­‐year average for the number of snow events with greater than 4-­‐in (10cm) snowfall per season. Historical Extreme Snow Events Here are the top ten snowstorms at NYC Central Park since 1869. 1. 26.9" Feb 11-­‐12, 2006 2. 25.8" Dec 26-­‐27, 1947 3. 21.0" Mar 12-­‐14, 1888 4. 20.9" Feb 25-­‐26, 2010 5. 20.2" Jan 7-­‐8, 1996 6. 20.0" Dec 26-­‐27, 2010 7. 19.8" Feb 16-­‐17, 2003 8. 19.0" Jan 26-­‐27, 2011 9. 18.1" Jan 22-­‐24, 1935 9. 18.1" Mar 7-­‐8, 1941 The top five snowstorms on record in Boston, Massachusefs since 1890: 1. 27.6" Feb 17-­‐18, 2003 2. 27.1" Feb 6-­‐7, 1978 3. 25.8" Feb 24-­‐26, 1969 4. 25.4" Mar 31-­‐Apr 1, 1997 5. 24.9" Feb 8-­‐9, 2013 The top five snowstorms on record in Providence, Rhode Island, since 1905: 1. 28.6" Feb 6-­‐7, 1978 2. 23.4" Jan 22-­‐23, 2005 3. 18.9" Feb 14-­‐16, 1962 4. 18.3" Feb 3-­‐4, 1961 5. 18.0" Feb 8-­‐9, 2013 hfp:// Ice Storms •  Frozen PrecipitaXon Types: Freezing Rain/Drizzle and Ice Pellets •  Ice storms require unique condiXons such that there is a layer of air with T>=0˚C in the lower troposphere (Rauber et. al 2001) Robbins & Cor+nas 2002 varying sizes of states, indicate the maximum frequenThe cies, number of m>20, ajor ice storms in each from climate region during values extended south Massachusetts a 1949-­‐2000. Values in parenthesis are those storms that only occurred g. within the region. m, e Northwest West North 5 (4) s Central East North Central Northeast 8 (1) 15 (1) 0 39 (16) 9 West 2 (0) e Central x r 6 t n e e 35 (2) Southwest 3 (0) South 30 (4) Southeast 32 (8) Alaska 0 Hawaii 0 Changnon and Changnon, 2002 Changnon and Changnon, 2002 Wind Storms Hurricane Force Extratropical Cyclones Observed Using QuikSCAT Near Real Time Winds hfp:// “sXng jets”: strong winds in the region behind the storm cold front. Occurrence: extremely rare. Most oaen occur of the ocean, but occasionally over land Cause: currently it is debated, but most likely involves mixing of strong winds from aloa down towards the surface October 27-­‐29, 2013 ETC in NW Europe Names: St. Jude (The Weather Channel and the U.K. Met Office) ChrisXan (Free Univ. of Berlin) Carmen (European Windstorm Centre, UK), Simone (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological InsXtute). Strongest winds ever recorded for some locaXons and resulXng in at least 16 fataliXes as well as causing yet to be determined amounts of financial damage hfp:// weatherhistorian/most-­‐powerful-­‐storm-­‐in-­‐14-­‐ years-­‐sweeps-­‐northwestern-­‐europe ...
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  • Fall '15
  • Prof.Sami
  • Tropical cyclone, Cyclone, ETCs, SNOW STORMS

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