EAS328_Lecture5_Part2_Tornados(1) - EAS 328 Natural...

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EAS 328: Natural Environmental Hazards Lecture #5: Friday, Feb 26, 2016: PART 2 Plan for this lecture: 1. Review some physics 2. Learn the physics of: -­‐ thunderstorms -­‐ tornados -­‐ dust storms 3. Study the impacts and best management pracNces for dealing with these events Some slides are adapted from: Keller, DeVecchio; Natural Hazards ; Chapter 10, by Tim Frazier
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FORCE A push or pull upon an object resulNng from the object's interacNon with another object Magnitude measured by how much a body is accelerated • F=MA Measured in Newtons (N) WORK Done when energy is expended Physics: force applied to an object and it moves a certain distance in the direction of the applied force Measured in Joules (J); J = Nm POWER Rate at which work is done Measured in Watts (W); W = Js -1 Physics Review
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Must expend energy to do work Potential energy Stored energy Example: water held behind a dam Kinetic energy Energy of motion Example: water flowing from the dam Heat energy Energy of random motion of atoms and molecules Sensible heat: heat sensed or measured by thermometer Latent heat: amount of heat absorbed or released when a substance changes phase Physics Review
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RADIATION Transfer through electromagnetic waves Emitted by any substance that possesses heat Does not require a medium for propagation Does not require mixing CONDUCTION Transfer through atomic or molecular interactions Two bodies in contact with one another Example: Sensible heating Requires a medium for propagation, but not mixing CONVECTION* Transfer through mass movement of a fluid Hot air rises displaces cool air which falls Creates a convection cell Requires a medium for propagation and mixing Physics Review
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Atmospheric Physics Review 1. Atmospheric pressure also called barometric pressure Weight of a column of air above a given point Force exerted by molecules on surface 2. Vertical stability of the atmosphere Related to buoyancy An vertically unstable atmosphere will convect 3. Coriolis effect Earth’s rotation causes winds to blow parallel to pressure contours Aspects of atmosphere directly related to severe weather Don’t be tricked by the image, the atmosphere is very small in the verNcal compared to the horizontal
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Severe Weather Severe weather refers to: Hurricanes Blizzards Ice storms Windstorms Thunderstorms Tornadoes Dust storms These weather events are hazardous due to the energy they release and damage they are capable of causing Ohter severe weather: Heat waves
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THUNDERSTORMS Three conditions necessary 1. Instability 2. Moisture 3. Lift Most occur in equatorial regions. Most common in the afternoon or evening hours in spring or summer Formation Moist air is forced upwards, cools and water vapor condenses to form cumulus clouds
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Ingredients for thunderstorm development Instability Warm air trapped below cooler air aloV Moisture
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