EAS328_Lect4_Sandy_Part2(1) - EAS 328 Natural Environmental...

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EAS 328: Natural Environmental Hazards Lecture Slides for Friday, Feb 17, 2016 Part 2: Impacts of Sandy Outline: 1. Details on types of Impacts 2. Reasons for impacts 3. Plans for resiliency 4. Future projecMons Flooding at NYC Airport
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Sandy Generated Extensive Flooding Most of the flooding was due to storm surge , not precipita±on. Speci²c causes of flooding by surge: 1.Floodwaters came directly from the ocean, as water surged over beaches and bulkheads. 2.The city's many bays, inlets, and creeks func±oned as “backdoor” channels, funneling ocean waters inland. 3.Overtopping the city’s extensive shoreline drainage infrastructure, and in some cases in²ltra±ng the roadway drainage and sewer system through catch basins, man- holes, and storm drains in the streets, especially in low- lying areas.
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The most devastating factor in Sandy was the storm surge + the tide What Caused the Impacts of Superstorm Sandy Storm surge: the abnormal rise of water generated by a storm, separate from the predicted astronomical Mdes. Storm 6de : the water level rise due to the combinaMon of storm surge and the astronomical Mde. When Sandy occurred: the storm surge coincided with high Mde. Terminology: Storm Surge Storm Tide
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How do storms generate surge h^p:// Key reminder: ETCs also cause storm surge. Storm surge is caused primarily by the strong winds in a hurricane or tropical storm. The low pressure of the storm has minimal contribuMon! Key: surge is diFerent from waves. Waves form and break near the coast every ~30 seconds. Surge builds up over 12-24 hours.
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What factors inFuence storm surge 3. Wind 'fetch’: the distance the wind blows over water with similar speed and direcMon. Bigger fetch creates bigger surge and bigger waves 4. Angle of Approach to Coast 5. Shape of the Coastline 6. Width and Slope of the Ocean Bo^om 1. Storm Intensity (in terms of wind strength). 2. Storm Forward speed (a higher surge is produced in bays, sounds, and other enclosed bodies of water with a slower storm)
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What Caused the Impacts of Superstorm Sandy Sandy created a very large storm tide At Battery Park: the water level gauge shows: - Max in storm surge coincides with high tide - Storm surge max: 9 feet above mean sea level - Storm tide max: 11.5 feet above mean sea level Y-axis values: feet relative to mean sea level (MSL) Note that the predicted tide (blue) can be positive (during high tide) or negative (during low tide).
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(1) The Timing of the Storm?
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  • Fall '15
  • Prof.Sami
  • Global Warming, Tropical cyclone, Storm, Sandy, surge

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