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122 MIDTERM EXAM - HISTORY 122 MIDTERM Put the number or...

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HISTORY 122 MIDTERM Put the number or letter of each question next to your answer. Put your name on each page Put “History 122” on the first page e-mail your completed exam to me by midnight Sunday, March 2 at [email protected] I ANSWER TWO OF THE FOLLOWING AS THOROUGHLY AS YOU CAN IN PROPER ESSAY FORM. EACH SHOULD BE ABOUT 2 TO 3 PAGES LONG. A. The Ottoman Turkish Empire, the Safavid Empire, and the Mughal Empire have been referred to as the “gunpowder empires.” This phrase as used by historians conveys the implication that they shared certain features and declined for similar reasons. Do you agree, disagree? Explain. The Mughal Empire gained power swiftly and eventually conquered and controlled most of northern India. An important part to the rise of their power was their leader, Akbar, who gave the empire a reason to expand. He gave Mongols positive social changes such as promoting Hindus in the government and eliminated taxes on Hindus; and this gave him the ability to have an empire that would back him up. The Mughal Empire, and followers and believers in Akbar, gained massive armies that consisted of cavalry, artillery, and gun power. Although the troops were conscripted from the poor and poorly trained, their vast amount in numbers allowed them to conquer as long as they did. The Mughal decline began with drained budgets going into public works, corruption in the central government, and unmatched military technology that European countries had developed. Also the emperor was distract from internal conflicts within the empire, and uprisings and revolts took a backseat while the focus remained on wars and gaining territory. In 1819 the Mughal Empire slowly started to end when the British East India Company came into control of the majority of the empire’s economy, and local rulers took on a more nationalist approach of
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running things. The final collapse of this dynasty was in 1858. The Safavid Empire gained strength mainly because of religious purposes. The Shi’ite Muslims rejected traditional Islamic leadership, and united to fight for their own territory that could be ruled under their religious beliefs. They overpowered Ottomans, regaining control and pushing them out of their western lands. Shah Abbas was a key leader during the peak of this empire. He replaced the army of “religious enthusiasts” with a paid army that was trained in a way to overcome any territory that came as a threat. They used huge cannons that they bought from the English, which allowed them to crush any threatening forces. The fall of the empire began like the Ottoman’s, with an economic decline, due to European invasion and control of resources. The Safavid Empire also had been slowly taken over by Ottoman and Afghanistan forces from 1722 and on. The conservative Shi’ite Muslim people also grew less tolerate for the leader at the time, who allowed more variety and acceptance to other forms of religion. With the combination of less followers and support for their government, and a dying
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122 MIDTERM EXAM - HISTORY 122 MIDTERM Put the number or...

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