Reading Notes - Pre-history of Mathematics(by Dirk Struik...

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Pre-history of Mathematics (by Dirk Struik 1965) First conceptions of number and dates goes back as far as the Old Stone Age (the Paleolithicum ). As we enter the New Stone Age (the Neolithicum ), we start to understand numerical values and space relations (going from gathering food to production; hunting to agriculture). Trades activities promoted the further formation of languages (some rooms for numbers). The development of the commercial activities stimulated the crystallization of number concept. - Larger units in trading uses the fingers of the hands - Later with 10 as base +addition -subtraction Counting started as finger counting is incorrect. Counting by fives and tens came only at a certain stage of social development. Once it’s reached, number could be expressed with references to a base. Measure the length and contents of objects (taken from parts of human body – fingers, feet or hands. Geometrical patterns occurring in pottery, weaving or basketry (dancing – triangular numbers) by Neolithic man. Egyptian Mathematics Mathematics originated in Egypt . Sources are - Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (dates from 1850 BC, computation of a truncated pyramid) - Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (written by Ahmose in 1650 BC) Egyptians were able to multiply any two natural numbers. They also knew how to extract square roots and how to solve linear equations. - Also used h for the unknown - Knew the area of a circle - Knew arithmetic progressions. - Use fraction but in the form of 1/n
Sumerian-Babylonian Mathematics Sumerian civilization was absorbed by the Babylonian around 2000 BC. Most of the mathematical achievement dated back at 2000 BC.

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