theories and hypotheses

theories and hypotheses - Scientific Hypothesis, Theories...

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Scientific Hypothesis, Theories and Laws “How do we know whether or not something is true ? Science is one way of knowing about the world – not the only way, but a very successful one. In contrast to some of the other ways of knowing that are part of our lives, the legitimacy of science is based not on authority, or opinion, or democratic principles, but on the weight of credible repeatable evidence” (Gurevitch et al. 2006). The principles and theories of science have been established through repeated experimentation and observation and have been refereed through peer review before general acceptance by the scientific community. Acceptance does not imply rigidity or constraint, or denote dogma. Instead, as new data become available, previous scientific explanations are revised and improved, or rejected and replaced. Science is a way of making sense of the world, with internally-consistent methods and principles that are well described. There is a progression from a hypothesis to a theory using testable, scientific laws. Only a few scientific facts are natural laws and many hypotheses are tested to generate a theory. Natural History – what’s in nature. Hypothesis - an idea or proposition that can be tested by observations or experiments about the natural world. In order to be considered valid, hypotheses are subject to scientific evaluation and must be falsifiable , which means that they are worded in such a way that they can be proven to be incorrect. Null hypothesis - the logical opposite of the hypothesis. Specifies what we should observe when the hypothesis being tested doesn’t hold. Example: When Mendel studied the pattern of single trait inheritance of garden peas he formed a hypothesis on the manner of how these traits were inherited. The hypothesis he formed was based on his observations and included the following: In the organism there is a pair of factors that controls the appearance of a given characteristic. The organism inherits these factors from its parents, one from each. Each is transmitted from generation to generation as a discrete, unchanging unit. When gametes are formed “factors” separate & are distributed as units to each gamete (= law of
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theories and hypotheses - Scientific Hypothesis, Theories...

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