Nikka Ghalili
U87705553
Introduction:
The main goal of this lab was to estimate the sizes of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids and
gases and in the end also the Avogadro's number. This was done by measuring the different samples in
the 3 phases and attaining their mass and volume and packing coefficient. With this information we
were able to manipulate basic equations in order to calculate the sizes of the different atoms.
Procedures:
In the experiment, we first chose our 2 metal samples, which happened to be copper and lead.
We then measured the mass and volume (which we did by the liquid displacement test)
then used this
information to calculate the other values required on Table 2 and hence we were able to attain the size
of the individual molecules in both substances. We then proceeded to calculate the packing coefficient
in solids. We did this by placing what seemed to be 10mL of lead shots into a cylinder tube, then filling
the cylinder with water until the water was aligned with the lead shots. We took the volume of the
water to be the volume of empty space and that is how we were able to get the packing coefficient. We
then measured the mass and volume of a sample of water and by modifying a little the formula we used
previously to calculate the size of molecules in solids, we were able to get the size of molecules in
liquids. For the gas phase, we took a cylinder sample of dry ice and took its dimensions and calculated
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 Fall '08
 M
 Atom, Mole, pH, dry ice

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