Chapter 3 book notes - Chapter 3 1. What are the variables...

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Chapter 3 1. What are the variables needed to describe motion? - Position, distance, time, acceleration, speed, and velocity. 2. How are these variables related? - Position is points in space, distance is the difference between two points in space, time is a nonspatial continuum in which events occur, acceleration is the measure of how fast velocity is changing over time, speed is the measure of how fast position is changing with time, and velocity is the speed and direction of motion. 3. What is the difference between a scalar and vector quantity? - A scalar quantity measures magnitude; whereas, a vector quantity measures both speed and direction. 4. Why is circular motion accelerated motion? - Velocity is always changing directions resulting in accelerated motion. 5. In circular motion, what determines the acceleration and which was does the acceleration vector point? - How fast velocity is changing over time and changing velocity’s direction determines acceleration. The acceleration vector points inwards to the center of the circle. 6. Why does the centripetal acceleration depend on v²? - Centripetal acceleration is force that is directed inwards towards the center of a curve. One power of v comes from the change in the velocity vector and the other power of v comes from the fact that the faster the car is moving, the smaller that time interval to get from one part of the circle to another. Chapter 4 1. What are the fundamental forces in nature? - Gravity, electromagnetic, strong nuclear and weak nuclear force. 2. What hoped-for unifications have we not been able to do yet? - We have not yet learned how to unify the strong nuclear force with the electro-weak; this is called the Grand Unification Theory. 3. What is the equation for the force of gravity and what does it tell you? - F= Gm1m2/ d². G is the Universal Constant of Gravity. M1 and m2 are masses that attract each other and d is the distance between them. Force and distance have an inverse relationship; if the distance were multiplied by 2, the force would decrease by ¼. Also, the further the masses are apart, the weaker their gravitational attraction. 4.
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Chapter 3 book notes - Chapter 3 1. What are the variables...

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