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ARH301 Exam II - ARH301 Exam II 10.25.05 Ancient Greece...

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ARH301 Exam II 10.25.05 – Ancient Greece Introduction Greeks also called Dorians Formed independent city-states (not unified like Egypt was) Archaic Period: o Kouros (c. 600 BC Archaic Period) Kouros means “young man” Statues during this period are similar to Egypt sculptures b/c of the very stiff and rigid posture; no natural movement Different: he is naked! Male, nude form was an ideal form; an ideal beauty o Kore means “young woman” from Chios (c. 510 BC Archaic Period) Hides the female form Covered in drapery o Kuoros from the Tomb of Krisos, Anavysos, Greece (c. Much more natural than the earlier Greek statue More subtle modeling, however, still rigid movement Classical Period: o Kritian Boy Kouros (c. 480 BC) Ushers in the Classical Period Contrapposto: Counterbalance or weight shift Very famous because this statue moves away from the rigid postured His head is turned slightly, he has shift weight Subtle detail to muscles, skin, etc. o Doryphoros or “Spearbearer” (c. 450 BCE) This is a human human and gods celebrate the same ideal beauty through the nude male form This is actually a Roman marble, remake Original Greek statue was made in bronze Made by Polykleitos (also author of Canon of Polykleitos) Naturalistic ! the human muscular structure: looks real; very idealized Very exact proportions (arms, legs, torso); this obsession with ratios & proportions is trademark of Greek sculpture & architecture Ideal in mind and spirit as well o Zeus He has totally broken out of the cube! You know he is not from the Archaic Period o Aphrodite of Knidos by Praxiteles (c. 360BC Classical Period) Female nudity Fleshier, softer, rounder beauty in comparison to male nudity Nude! classical period Also has weight shift Naturalism and ideal female beauty Architecture: o Archaic Period: Temple of Hera I (c. 550BC, not in book): Religious structure; temple to Hera Same time period as the rigid Kuoros statue Proportions and ratios important in architecture (# of columns, etc) Use to have wooden roof w/ terracotta tiles on roof Peristyle: Columns arranged in rows around the perimeter Use to have central room with interior walls Naos: sacred room inside temple; it held the deity’s/cult statue (this one was dedicated to Hera) Doric columns: Columns are not very graceful; still chunky
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Had to put statue on the side b/c of the roof (held up by columns); they probably didn’t like this b/ c they like balance and proportions o Early Classical Period: Temple of Hera II: 100 years after Hera I Next door to Hera I Columns have become longer, more elongated, narrower more elegant Same time period as the Spearbearer statue Still has obsession with ratios & proportions Could now put the statue in the middle b/c had 2 columns to hold up roof instead However, this caused another problem b/c there was a proportions with height and circumference
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