CH301 - chapter 1 notes

CH301 - chapter 1 notes - 1 General Chemistry I CH301...

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1 General Chemistry I CH301 Chapter One (Whitten, Davis, Peck, & Stanley—7 th Edition) Matter and Energy Matter: has mass (quantity of matter in a given sample) occupies space Energy: (light, electrical, heat) capacity to do work or transfer heat Kinetic Energy : energy of motion does work directly easily transferred between objects Potential Energy : Energy that is possessed by position, condition, or composition Position – placed in a resting situation but will become kinetic if put in motion. Composition – chemical energy possessed by substances Energy changes: Chemical processes are accompanied by a E T (usually in the form of heat) Heat energy given off (from surroundings) – exothermic Heat energy absorbed – endothermic The Law of Conservation of Matter Iron (Fe) + oxygen (½O 2 ) An iron oxide (FeO) product Mass of iron + mass of oxygen (from atmosphere) provides the mass of iron oxide product (combined masses) No observable quantity of mass is lost during the chemical reaction processes. The Law of Conservation of Energy K.E. + P.E. = E T Energy is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction or during a physical change. The Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy The combined amount of matter and energy in the UNIVERSE IS FIXED.
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2 STATES OF MATTER: Defined by properties: Rigidity , Expansion by heating , Shape , Compressibility Energy is required when a change of state occurs. Heat energy is added when ice is melted to liquid water or when water is vaporized to gaseous water. Heat energy is releases when water vapor is condensed to liquid water or frozen to a solid. Sublimation is process by which a solid goes directly to a gaseous state—does not go through the liquid state, e.g. moth balls.
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3 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Chemical Properties (Mg + ½O 2 MgO) the kinds of chemical changes that matter can undergo. Magnesium reacts with oxygen Oxygen reacts with magnesium Physical Properties — observed (without a change in composition). Color physical state melting point boiling point density conductivity – electrical and thermal Extensive Properties —depend on the amount of the substance. (volume & mass). E.g., A sample weighs 40.2 g and has a volume of 445 mL tells us nothing about the about its identity. Intensive Properties --- the properties used to identify a substance (do not depend on amount) E.g., The density of gold is the same whether we have 40.2 g of it or if we have 150. g of it. Note: All chemical properties are intensive properties. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHANGES Chemical change : One or more substances are used up (changed to) one or more new substances. Fe + ½O 2 FeO (exothermic) Physical change: The chemical composition does not change during this process.
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2008 for the course CH 301 taught by Professor Fakhreddine/lyon during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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CH301 - chapter 1 notes - 1 General Chemistry I CH301...

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