CH301 - chapter 4 notes

CH301 - chapter 4 notes - 1 General Chemistry I Chapter 4...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 General Chemistry I Chapter 4 4-1 The Periodic Table : (Arrangement of elements by increasing atomic number) The Periodic Table: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids 1869 - Mendeleev & Meyer Discovered the periodic law ± The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. Groups or families ± Vertical group of elements on periodic table ± Similar chemical and physical properties Period ± Horizontal group of elements on periodic table ± Transition from metals to nonmetals Metals ± Some chemical properties of metals ± Outer shells contain few electrons ± Form cations by losing electrons ± Form ionic compounds with nonmetals ± Solid state characterized by metallic bonding Group IA metals ± Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr ± One example of a periodic trend The reactions with water of Li, Na, & K Group IIA metals ± alkaline earth metals ± Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra Some chemical properties of nonmetals 1. Outer shells contain four or more electrons 2. Form anions by gaining electrons 3. Form ionic compounds with metals and covalent compounds with other nonmetals 4. Form covalently bonded molecules; noble gases are monatomic Group VIIA nonmetals ± halogens ± F, Cl, Br, I, At Group VIA nonmetals ± O, S, Se, Te Group 0 (8) nonmetals ± noble, inert or rare gases ± He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn ± You are already aware of the metals and nonmetals on the periodic table. You also know that the groups of elements are the columns on the periodic table. Now we will learn common names of some of the groups.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Metals are to the left of stair step. Approximately 80% of the elements Best metals are on the far left of the table. Nonmetals are to the right of stair step. Approximately 20% of the elements Best nonmetals are on the far right of the table. Metalloids have one side of the box on the stair step. Periodic trends in metallic character You need to know the general physical and chemical properties of metals and nonmetals. Tables 4.3 and 4.4. Metallic characteristics: (Physical and chemical) The general trend: decreases across the periods increases down the groups Nonmetallic characteristics: (Physical and chemical) The general trend: increases across the periods decreases down the groups Metalloids: Both metal and nonmetal characteristics. (Semiconductors) Elements that share groups have similar chemical and physical characteristics. Periodic Chart More Metallic More Metallic
Background image of page 2
3 Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction Electrolytes – substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water . 1. Strong electrolytes conduct electrical current very well. 2. Weak electrolytes conduct electrical current poorly. 3. Nonelectrolytes do not conduct electrical current.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 06/19/2008 for the course CH 301 taught by Professor Fakhreddine/lyon during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

Page1 / 16

CH301 - chapter 4 notes - 1 General Chemistry I Chapter 4...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online