CH301 - chapter 10 notes

CH301 - chapter 10 notes - 1 CH 301 Chapter 4 & 10...

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1 CH 301 Chapter 4 & 10 Acids and Bases Chapter 4 Revisited : 4-2 (part 2) Strong and Weak Acids Acids are defined as substances that produce H + in aqueous solution. The strong acids completely ionized (or almost completely ionize) when in dilute aqueous solution. The H + ions produced in aqueous solutions produce acidic solutions . By now, you should be thoroughly familiar with the seven strong acids: Three are derived from the halogens (Group 7) HCl HBr HI Four are derived from the polyatomic ions (oxoacids): H 2 SO 4 HNO 3 HClO 3 HClO 4 Note: An acid cannot be an acid unless it is in solution—that is, it must be able to produce H + and that can happen only in solution. Often, and correctly so, acids are named with the symbol (aq) because acids are more commonly dissolved in water. E.g. HClO 3 (aq) Î chloric acid (a strong acid) When such an acid is added to water, hydrogen ions are produced: 2 * 33 (~100% () ) HO HClO aq H aq ClO aq + → + * This type of notation indicates that the strong acid, chloric acid, is completely ionized in aqueous solution. Weak acids, on the other hand, only partially ionize in aqueous solution . Generally the degree to which these acids ionize is very small – such as acetic acid that only ionizes about 0.5%. When a weak acid is added to water, the numbers of hydrogen ions that are produced are very small. The H + produced combine with the anion to reform the weak acid molecule. This is called a reversible reaction.
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2 2 33 ( () ;) HO reversib CH COOH le favorsth aq H aq CH COO e formationof thereacta a nt q +− + ZZZX Z YZZZZZ The double arrows in the reversible reaction indicates that when the reactant ionizes to form H + and CH 3 COO ions, the ions tend to recombine to form the original weak acid molecule. The bottom arrow, which is longer than the top arrow, indicates that the nonionized form of the weak acid is favored—that is, if you could look into a dilute acetic acid solution, you would see mostly CH 3 COOH molecules and very few H + and CH 3 COO ions. There are many weak acids and only seven strong acids. To determine if an acid is strong or weak, you should realize if it is not one of the seven strong acids, it must be a weak acid. There are several common weak acids that you should recognize immediately. ( TABLE 4-6 and a few additional weak acids.) HF CH 3 COOH H 2 CO 3 HCN H 3 PO 4 HNO 2 (COOH) 2 HClO HClO 2 H 2 SO 3 You should be able to name and/or write the structural formulas to the above ten weak acids. Naming Acids: (Binary Acids, page 163-164) Binary acids, (acids of group 6 and 7), are composed of hydrogen and one other nonmetal element (except oxygen). Binary acids are named by using the prefix “hydro-” and changing the suffix from “-ide” to “-ic”.
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CH301 - chapter 10 notes - 1 CH 301 Chapter 4 & 10...

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