Oﬃce- Allen 2043W 1:30-2:30Topics: Background and FrameworkParties as organizational entitiesCross-National comparisonParties as conglomerates of votersInterest groups as competitorsFocus on U.S. w/ lots of comparison (most UK)Change in parties and their rolesAlternative models of parties and party systems how US parties compareFuture of parties "over?" or just beginning Required book- Hershey Party Politics in AmericaExam I 25% 2/9Exam II 25% 3/8Exam III 25% 4/19Term Paper 15% 3/31Oral Presentations 5%Class Participation 5%Kenneth Janda's definition of Political PartyMEMORIZE ITAn organization (A group with structure and identifiable goals) which has as at least one of its goals the placement (by some means; not just election) of its avowed representatives (who carry the party banner with them) into governmental oﬃces (of any kind)By this definition the following qualify as partiesCompetitive- emphasize "open competition in the electoral process"Restrictive- emphasize "restricting competition [from] opposing parties" ex. China, North Korea, Turkey, Some U.S. states require petitions for a third party to runBallot Access Requirements Subversive-emphasize 'subverting the political system' Paraguay: The RFF is SubversiveEL Salvador -subversiveChina- Restrictive Iraq- Baath Party- SubversiveCuba- subversive to restrictivePeru- APRA is subversiveUSA- Creators Rights Party- Neal Horsley (subversive)Interest GroupsA group that is organized for the expression of common interest and attitudesPressure Groupingan interest group which expresses common interests and attitudes to the governmentPAC'sA pressure group which collects money from its members and contributes that money to candidates and partiesSUPER PACS are independents-expenditure-only pacs (they run their own campaigns) Compared to pressure groups, parties: normally have wider range of interests [behavioral distinction]they need to appeal to a wide range of peoplenormally have broader base of appeal [behavioral]want to place avowed representatives in governmental positions [definitional]Political Parties developed in the United StatesWhen? the first few decades after the Constitution (which is ironic, given the anti-party environment at the timeGeorge Washington (Farewell Address), James Madison (Federalist 10)NEED: Broad Suffrage Early 1790's Federalist Party is formed (Alexander Hamilton) Hamilton believed the upperclass should ruleThomas Jefferson and James Madison - Jeffersonian Republican Party is FormedParty of the common people1796 or 1800 (1st 2 party pres. election) 1816- last election for the federalists- no longer had a support baseBy 1820- White Male Universal Suffrage, the new majority was the common peopleEra of Good Feelings- Down to one party1824- Several Factions but all Republicans1828- Democratic Republicans (Andrew Jackson) Nat'l Republicans (J.Q. Adams) This is where the Party split into 21830's- The National Republicans changed name to Whigs because they thought A.J had too much power.