11 B- Endocrine Glands - Endocrine Glands-B Lecturer: Dr....

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Endocrine Glands-B Lecturer: Dr. R. Ahangari University of Central Florida, Orlando Human Physiology by S.I. Fox and human anatomy by Marieb & Mallat
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Connections of the Hypothalamus with the Hypophysis cerebri: The hypothalamus is connected to the hypophysis cerebri (pituitary gland) by two ways: 1- nerve fibers from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to posterior pituitary lobe. 2- long and short portal blood vessels connecting sinusoids in the median eminence and infundibulum with capillary plexus in the anterior lobe of the hypophysis. These pathways enables the hypothalamus to influence the endocrine glands activities.
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Hormones of the anterior lobe of the pituitary Growth hormone (GH) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Follicle- Stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Thyroid- Stimulating hormone (TSH), Prolactin (PL) Hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary 1- Vasopressin or Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 2- Oxytocin
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Adrenal gland It is located in the retroperitoneum above or medial to the upper poles of the kidneys. It has two parts cortex (outer layer) and medulla , 90% is cortex and 10% is the inner medulla.
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Structure of the adrenal cortex About 90% of the adrenal gland is composed of the cortex. It consists of three layers (zones).
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Nephron
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1- Synthesis of adrenocortical hormones The cortex has 3 layers: They produce steroid hormones from cholesterol as a common precursor. Zona glomerulosa: produces mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) Zona fasciculata: produces mostly glucocorticoids (cortisol) Zona reticulata: produces sex hormones (mostly androgens, dehydroepiandro- -sterone and androstenedione). *Adrenal cortex is regulated by pituitary hormone ACTH.
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Aldosterone secretion Is under tonic control by ACTH, but is separately regulated by the renin-angiotensin system and the potassium. Renin- angiotensin- aldosterone system: A- decreases in blood volume cause a decrease in renal perfusion pressure, which in turn increases renin secretion. - Renin, an enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. - Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). B- Angiotensin II acts on the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex to increase the conversion of corticosterone to aldosterone.
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2008 for the course PCB 3303 taught by Professor Anghari during the Fall '07 term at University of Central Florida.

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11 B- Endocrine Glands - Endocrine Glands-B Lecturer: Dr....

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