GEOLOGY STUDY GUIDE 4

GEOLOGY STUDY GUIDE 4 - Geology 1010-001, Fall 2007 Exam #...

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Geology 1010-001, Fall 2007 Exam # 4 – Review Sheet Chapter 16 – Streams (Does not include sections on Drainage Patterns or Floods and Flood Control) Some key terms or ideas: Streams/Rivers: Flowing bodies of water that carry runoff to oceans/lakes, erode the land, and transport and deposit sediment Stream power How streams erode and transport sediment: ability of a stream to do work Shear stress (places particles in motion) X Avg. flow velocity (how fast they move) Stream gradient Slope of channel; if identical other than gradient, higher gradient = higher velocity Longitudinal profile “Map” of path from head of stream to mouth (image of gradient) Discharge Total amount of water that passes a given point per unit of time Q = w X d X v (width X depth X velocity) Base level Lowest elevation to which a stream can erode its channel (often where it enters large body of water) Dissolved load Sediment in solution (dissolved minerals in water, don’t appear unless chemical composition changes) Suspended load Fine grained particles, suspended in middle of fluid, don’t settle easy Bed load Particles are larger, coarser, move along bottom Traction- Rolling/sliding sediment Saltation- Sediment transported through leaps/bounces Alluvium Unconsolidated sediment deposited by a stream Alluvial fan Fan-shaped deposit of sediment formed when a stream’s slope is abruptly reduced Delta Location of significant sedimentation where a river meets an ocean Meandering stream Gentle gradients, fine-grained alluvium (suspended load) Point bar, cut bank, oxbow lake, migrating meanders Braided stream Steeper gradients, coarse to fine-grained alluvium Incised meanders Meandering channel in steep, narrow valleys; form when area is uplifted or base level drops River terraces River experiences drop in base level, produces floodplain at a level below the old one, continues to do so, remnants of old ones are terraces Flood plain Meandering river shifts back and forth, widens valley, produces floodplain Natural levees When a stream floods, it deposits sediment on each side, slopes on each side of river Area behind levee is poorly drained (can’t flow into river = swamps/marshes)
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Some key questions or concepts: Describe how streams are able to pick up and move sediments. Describe how the channel gradient (slope), shape, size, and roughness change downstream and affect stream velocity. Describe base level and its relationship to stream erosion and deposition.
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2008 for the course GEOL 1010 taught by Professor Pranter,ma during the Fall '07 term at Colorado.

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GEOLOGY STUDY GUIDE 4 - Geology 1010-001, Fall 2007 Exam #...

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