ATOC Study Guide 1

ATOC Study Guide 1 - Weather and Atmosphere: Study Guide 1,...

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EQUATIONS/STUFF: 1 km = .62 miles, 10 km = 6.2 miles, etc. Atmospheric pressure at sea level: 14.7 lbs/in 2 To compare “thinness” of atmosphere to one at sea level: Divide pressure by 14.7 = percent of atmosphere the comparing city has. Units for Scientific Measurements (International System of Units, “SI”) meter for distance kilogram for mass second for time kelvin for temperature (formal) Celsius for everyday measurement of temperature newton for force Relative Humidity (as a decimal) = Vapor Pressure / Saturation Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure = Relative Humidity (as a decimal) X Saturation Vapor Pressure When VP = SVP, that temperature is the dewpoint temp. 1 knot = approx. 1.15 mph To convert between UTC and local time: Longitude X (24hrs/360 degrees) = how many hours difference To find degree days: Heating degree days- Average the high and low temp. of the day and subtract it from 65. If the average is higher than 65, it is assumed no heating is needed, and the degree days is zero. Otherwise, the answer is the number of degree days. Cooling degree days- Average the high and low, and subtract 65. If the average is below 65, no cooling is needed. Otherwise, the answer is the number of degree days. CHAPTER 1: Named latitude circles Arctic Circle- 66.5 degrees N Tropic of Cancer- 23.5 degrees N Equator- 0 degrees N or S Tropic of Capricorn- 23.5 degrees S Antarctic Circle- 66.5 degrees S Atmosphere size Approx. 3000 km Very thin in comparison to Earth Weather only occurs in lowest 12 km Atmosphere Composition Nitrogen- 78% Oxygen- 21% Other gases (carbon dioxide, etc.)- 1% Water vapor Aerosols- solid or liquid particles suspended in the air Soot, smoke, dust, pollen, etc. Atmosphere Layers (lowest to highest) Troposphere (tropopause barrier to rising air) Temperature decreases as you go up Why tropopause is a barrier
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In stratosphere, temperature rises = rising air is no longer hotter than above air 90% of atmosphere is in troposphere Tropopause higher at equator Hot air rises/expands to make tropopause higher Stratosphere Temp. rises with altitude 99.9% of the atmosphere in the troposphere AND stratosphere Mesosphere Temp. decreases Thermosphere Temp. increases Basic Atmosphere Properties Temperature Pressure Wind Moisture Temperature- Average speed of the molecules in a substance Hot objects transfer heat to colder ones Why we have seasons Earth’s rotational axis TILTS at 23.5 degrees away from axis that is perpendicular to the orbital plane 3 Effects of the Tilt Length of day and night Ex: when the North Pole is tilted into the sun, they will have 24 hrs. of daylight Amount of atmosphere that sunlight must go through before reaching the surface
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2008 for the course ATOC 1050 taught by Professor Forrest,be during the Fall '06 term at Colorado.

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ATOC Study Guide 1 - Weather and Atmosphere: Study Guide 1,...

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