APES ch 8 review - Madelyn Tassiello APES Block 1 Chapter 8...

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Madelyn Tassiello APES Block 1 1/3/2017 Chapter 8 Review 8-1 2. What are the two key concepts for this section? 1. Saltwater and freshwater aquatic life zones cover almost three-fourths of the earth’s surface, with oceans dominating the planet. 2. The key factors determining biodiversity in aquatic systems are temperature, dissolved oxygen content, availability of food, and access to light and nutrients necessary for photosynthesis. What percentage of the earth’s surface is covered with water? 71% but freshwater only occupies 2.2% What is an aquatic life zone? A saltwater or freshwater portion of the biosphere that can support life. Distinguish between a saltwater (marine) life zone and a freshwater life zone, and give two examples of each. Saltwater Life zones are associated with oceans (oceans, bays, estuaries, wetlands) Freshwater life zones have a salt concentration of less than 1% (lakes, ponds, rivers, inland wetlands) Define plankton and describe three types of plankton. Small plant and animal organisms that float in aquatic ecosystems. Phytoplankton, ultraplankton, and zooplankton. Distinguish among nekton, benthos, and decomposers and give an example of each. Nekton are strongly swimming consumers such as fish, turtles, and whales. Benthos are bottom-dwellers like oysters, sea stars, clams, worms, lobsters, and crabs. Decomposers break down organic compounds in the dead bodies and wastes of aquatic organisms into nutrients and are mostly bacteria. List five factors that determine the types and numbers of organisms found in the three layers of aquatic life zones. Temperature, dissolved oxygen content, availability of food, and availability of light and nutrients for photosynthesis. What is turbidity and how does it occur? Describe one of its harmful impacts. It is cloudiness in a volume of water and it occurs from algal growth and sediments in water. It can prevent photosynthesis and cause corals to die. 8-2 3. What is the key concept for this section? Saltwater ecosystems provide major ecosystem and economic services and are irreplaceable reservoirs of biodiversity. What major ecosystem and economic services are provided by marine systems? Ecosystem - oxygen through photosynthesis, water purification, climate moderation, CO2 absorbing, nutrient cycling, reduced storm damage, and biodiversity Economic - food, energy from waves and tides, pharmaceuticals, harbors and transportation routes, recreation and tourism, employment, minerals What are the three major life zones in an ocean?
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The coastal zone, the open sea, and the ocean bottom Define and distinguish between the coastal zone and the open sea. Coastal zone is the warm, nutrient rich, shallow water that extends from the high tide mark on the land to the shallow edge of the continental shelf.
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