commfinal - Liz Drescher COMM201 Final Herbert Wichelns and...

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Liz Drescher COMM201 Final Herbert Wichelns and the Revival of the Classical Tradition Wrote “the literary criticism of oratory” Literary critics are “all in various ways interpreters of the permanent and universal values they find in the works of which they treat Rhetorical criticism does not focus on the permanence and beauty of the work but “it is concerned with effect.” Rhetorical criticism is… o Audience-centered o Concerned with the EFFECT of discourse on a specific audience o Concerned w/ the METHOD the author used to convince that audience Lloyd Bitzer’s Conception of the Rhetorical Situation Presuppositions: o 1. Rhetoric is situation bound. It is called into being by/in response to a specific situation o 2. A situation may occur to which discourse/rhetoric is NOT applied. But, discourse/rhetoric will not exist without a situation it is intended to meet o 3. The role of the situation in generating discourse has not been sufficiently studied Characteristics of the Rhetorical Situation o 1. EXIGENCE- a need that can be modified by rhetoric (ex. Cold War) o 2. AUDIENCE- group of people the speaker attempts to modify in order to modify the exigence. The proper audience for a speaker will be one that can effect the exigence and be effected by the speaker’s rhetoric o 3. CONSTRAINTS- those situational factors that allow the speaker to communicate but also limit what the speaker may say or do in responding to the situation (ex cant make inappropriate jokes) o 4. RHETOR- the speaker who seeks to provide a “fitting response” that will move the audience to modify the exigence a. Fitting response- response to the rhetorical appeals within the constraints of the situation that moves the proper audience to modify the exigency b. Modifying the exigence- to change the need to the degree that it no longer exists as a rhetorical need Edwin Black and Defining Rhetorical Criticism Form- Manner in which a work is put together Genre- when a number of works are put together in a similar manner Criticized the Neo-Aristotelian approach
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Rhetoric as Argument: Stephen Toulmin Bacon and Ramus grounded modern thought in the notion that “reality” exists in the observable world, that you can see it, and that you can accurately represent it with words The extension of these ideas = logical positivism (the intellectual effort to bring scientific standards to bear on the resolution of issues) o The only meaningful statements are those that in principle are empirically verifiable o The aim of LP is to purge language of subjectivity—purify it General semantics- apply LP to language o 1.) Aim- to clarify language, eliminate misunderstanding Mistakes brought on by: **Confusing symbols which are arbitrary referents (terms with potential ambiguity) **Using high level abstractions o 2.) Goal- to get argument back to using only syllogistic form (all A is B) Syllogistic arguments If the premises are true, the conclusion must be true
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