Section1_Fundamentals

Section1_Fundamentals - 1 A Brief Review of Chemical...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 A Brief Review of Chemical Fundamentals By the end of this section, you will remember: (1) What atoms , elements, compounds, molecules and ions are (2) What an atomic mass unit is (3) What isotopes and isotopic masses are (4) What the mole and molar mass are, and how to convert between them (5) How the periodic table is laid out, the names of some of the groups and how to name compounds and ions 2 1.1 Introduction (MH5, 1.1) Q: What is chemistry? A: The study of the properties and transformations of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. It exists in three phases (= states): solid rigid shape and fixed volume liquid fixed volume, but not rigid in shape gas neither fixed volume nor rigid shape We indicate the physical state of matter by following its formula with one of these symbols: ( s ) solid ( l ) liquid ( g ) gas H 2 O( l ) liquid water H 2 O( s ) ice H 2 O( g ) water vapor 2 1.1 Introduction (MH5, 1.1) Q: What is chemistry? A: The study of the properties and transformations of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. It exists in three phases (= states): solid rigid shape and fixed volume liquid fixed volume, but not rigid in shape gas neither fixed volume nor rigid shape We indicate the physical state of matter by following its formula with one of these symbols: ( s ) solid ( l ) liquid ( g ) gas H 2 O( l ) liquid water H 2 O( s ) ice H 2 O( g ) water vapor 3 Matter can be divided into: Pure substances (single component – elements and compounds ) - and - Mixtures (multiple components – homogeneous ( e.g. , brass, milk) and heterogeneous ( e.g. , granite)) Q: What is an element? A: Matter that cannot be broken down into two or more pure substances - or - A substance in which all atoms (smallest chemically indivisible piece) have the same atomic number Every element is identified by a symbol: C carbon , from the Latin carbo , for charcoal Cu copper , from the Latin cuprum , for Cyprus He helium , from the Greek helios , for sun Hg mercury , from the Latin hydrargyrum , for “liquid silver” 4 Some elements contain more than one atom: Element Natural form at r.t. Physical state Helium He (atomic) Hydrogen H 2 (molecular) Bromine Br 2 (molecular) Sulphur S 8 (molecular) Q: What is a compound ? A: A pure substance that contains more than one element, e.g. , H 2 O (water), NH 3 (ammonia). The properties of compounds can be very different from those of the elements they contain. Example: Na (sodium) is a soft metal, Cl 2 (chlorine) is a gas. Sodium chloride (= table salt) is a crystalline compound (MH5, Figure 1.3). Chemical methods such as electrolysis (see later) can be used to decompose a compound into its elements; e.g. the decomposition of water (H 2 O) yields oxygen and hydrogen. 5 1.2. Properties of Substances (MH5, 1.3) Physical properties can be observed without changing the chemical identity of a substance ( i.e....
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2008 for the course CHEM 024b taught by Professor Jones during the Winter '07 term at UWO.

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Section1_Fundamentals - 1 A Brief Review of Chemical...

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