Section8_Thermochemistry1

Section8_Thermochemistry1 - Page 1 of 15 Thermochemistry I...

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Unformatted text preview: Page 1 of 15 Thermochemistry I By the end of this lecture, you will be able to: (1) Define the terms: Energy (kinetic and potential) Heat Work Enthalpy (2) Understand how potential energy depends on position and composition (3) State the first law of thermodynamics (4) Define open, closed and isolated systems (5) Understand state functions Page 2 of 15 Chemists ask themselves: (1) When two substances are mixed, will they react? (2) Will there be a release of energy, or will energy be consumed? (3) What will be the composition of the products and reactants at equilibrium? (4) How quickly will the reaction occur? Thermodynamics is the study of the transformations of energy . What is energy ? Energy is the capacity to do work or to produce heat. Page 3 of 15 Definitions are important Page 4 of 15 There are two broad categories of energy: (1) Kinetic energy Kinetic energy is the energy associated with bodies in motion. K.E. = mv 2 where m is the mass of the body v is the velocity of the body Recall: work = force distance force = mass acceleration Thus: work = mass acceleration distance Thus: J = kg m s-2 m = kg m 2 s-2 Page 5 of 15 (2) Potential energy Potential energy is the built-in future capacity to work or to produce heat as a consequence of position or composition . Associated with attractive and repulsive forces ( e.g. , gravity, electrostatic forces, nuclear forces). Position e.g. , a ball of mass m held at a height h from the earth s surface has potential energy: P.E. = mgh Where g is the gravitational attraction of the earth (9.8 m s-2 ) {J = kg m s-2 m = kg m 2 s-2 } Composition e.g. , the reaction: H 2 + O 2 H 2 O releases 286 kJ of energy Page 6 of 15...
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2008 for the course CHEM 024b taught by Professor Jones during the Winter '07 term at UWO.

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Section8_Thermochemistry1 - Page 1 of 15 Thermochemistry I...

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