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Unformatted text preview: States of Matter: I Ideal Gases By the end of this section you should be able to: (1) Define a gas by stating its properties. (2) State the ideal gas law and have an idea where it came from. (3) Outline the assumptions behind the concept of an ideal gas. (4) State the conditions under which real gases behave like ideal gases. (5) Feel comfortable with units of pressure, temperature and volume. (6) Determine the total pressure of a mixture of gases and calculate the partial pressure due to any one gas in a mixture. What is a gas ? (a) A gas is a fluid that expands to fill its container completely and uniformly. (b) A gas mixes completely with any other gas. (c) A gas exerts pressure on its container. Unlike solids and liquids, a gas does not have a fixed volume or shape. Its volume depends on temperature and pressure, and its shape is fixed by the shape of its container. (2) How do the pressure (P), temperature (T), volume (V) and quantity ( n , in moles) of a gas interrelate? V ∝ T (Charles ’ s Law) V ∝ 1/P (Boyle ’ s Law) V ∝ n Therefore: V ∝ To get an equation, we need the proportionality constant, R: V = Rearranging gives the familiar form: PV = {atm L = mol × L atm mol1 K1 × K} This is the IDEAL GAS LAW It is an equation of state : if we know any three of P, V, T or n , we can describe the state of the gas completely. R is the universal gas constant R = 8.3145 J mol1 K1 R = 0.08206 L atm mol1 K1 For a pure gas ( i.e....
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 Winter '07
 JONES
 Chemistry, States Of Matter, atm mol1 K1

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