Section3_Solutions1

# Section3_Solutions1 - Page 1 of 17 Solutions 1 By the end...

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Unformatted text preview: Page 1 of 17 Solutions 1 By the end of this section, you will be able to: (1) Define the units of concentration, molarity and molality . (2) Understant ionization and electrolytes. (3) Recognize precipitation reactions and identify spectator ions. (4) Know the Arrhenius and Bronsted definitions of acids and bases, and understand the terms weak and strong. (5) Write equations for neutralization reactions between strong acids and bases. (6) Define pH, pOH and pK w . Page 2 of 17 Concentration The most common unit of concentration is molarity (M) . This is the number (n) of moles of a solute dissolved in one litre of solution . Units: mol L-1 . M = n / V where V is the volume of solution in L. [A less typical unit is molality , which is the number of moles of a solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent . Units: mol kg-1 ] e.g. , A 6 M solution of NaOH has 6 moles of NaOH per liter of liquid. Square brackets [ ] are often used: [NaOH] means “the concentration of NaOH” In this example, [NaOH] = 6 M. We say “the solution is 6 molar.” Solutions can be concentrated (high conc.), e.g. 6 M NaOH, or dilute (low conc.), e.g. 10-3 M NaOH = 3 mM Page 2 of 17 Concentration The most common unit of concentration is molarity (M) . This is the number (n) of moles of a solute dissolved in one litre of solution . Units: mol L-1 . M = n / V where V is the volume of solution in L. [A less typical unit is molality , which is the number of moles of a solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent . Units: mol kg-1 ] e.g. , A 6 M solution of NaOH has 6 moles of NaOH per liter of liquid. Square brackets [ ] are often used: [NaOH] means “the concentration of NaOH” In this example, [NaOH] = 6 M. We say “the solution is 6 molar.” Solutions can be concentrated (high conc.), e.g. 6 M NaOH, or dilute (low conc.), e.g. 10-3 M NaOH = 3 mM NaOH. Page 3 of 17 Example Calculations You have a bottle labeled “concentrated HCl”. It has [HCl] = 12.0 M. How many moles are there in 25.0 mL? What volume of the 12 M solution must be taken to contain 1.00 mol HCl? Dissolution Any substance that is IONIC as a solid is – if it dissolves – IONIC in aqueous solution ( i.e. , positive and negative ions separate from one another)....
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Section3_Solutions1 - Page 1 of 17 Solutions 1 By the end...

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