midterm II prep

midterm II prep - Midterm II(NOV 1st 07 evolutionary stable...

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Midterm II (NOV 1 st , 07) evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) - evolution as a result of small cumulative steps: o small steps based on previos successful steps leads to rapid evolution. o “single step evolution” impossible; would never get evolution anywhere. (a lizard can’t just suddenly sprout wings). o Example: computer experiment ‘METHINKS IT IS WEASLE’ - Inherited traits include behavior. o Duckling experiment with the shape of a hawk/mother duck, depending on the way you move it. o The memory of that specific shape is imprinted in the genes!! E.g #2: termite’s mud skyscrapers. o Spider webs: shape isn’t really inherent. It’s just that those with the best size prevails. if too big, the spider spends more energy weaving it than gaining it back from prey caught. Thus it dies and only those with just the right size survives (energy spent making the web is worth it.) - Hardy – Weinberg: evolution within a species. o Relationship between the frequency of an allele in a population and the genotype of the species **note** Phenotype = appearance/ quality of an organism Genotype = inherited instructions that cannot be seen Natural Selection: Industrial Melanism: - rapid shift of moth colors (peppered moth) during the industrial 19 th century, England. - p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 (p: freq.homozygous dom.genotype||2pq:hetero||q:homo.recess) Evolution: Definition of Species. 1) geographical isolation: natural selection
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midterm II prep - Midterm II(NOV 1st 07 evolutionary stable...

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