ES Midterm 1 Study Guide - Ethnic Studies 10AC Midterm 1 Study Guide Reconquista brutal conflict that began in the Iberian Peninsula fueled in part by

ES Midterm 1 Study Guide - Ethnic Studies 10AC Midterm 1...

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Ethnic Studies 10AC: Midterm 1 Study Guide Reconquista : brutal conflict that began in the Iberian Peninsula fueled in part by devotion to Christianity. A war between kingdoms and a crusade against the Muslims (those without “religion”). The men who fought in the Reconquista were convinced of their superiority to their enemies— including of their right to enslave the people they conquered. Gave rise to the idea of “purity of blood,” and that Spanish blood was “real,” Christian blood. The Reconquista was also driven by a desire for land and profit taken from the conquered. Convinced that the peoples of the Americas were uncivilized heathens, the Spanish adopted the same mindset and rules of war in the Americas. Doctrine of Discovery: viewing land accumulation as a god-given right; used by European colonists to claim the lands, territories, and resources of the Indigenous, asserting that the monarchies had a right to appropriate on behalf of Christendom; premise to claim legitimacy on and sovereignty over Indigenous lands; produces reason for indoctrination, enslavement, and extermination for the sake of conversion [Eurocentrism: idea of centering Europe as the exceptional location of knowledge and history; interprets the world in terms of European values, particularly those based on religion that soon shifted to those based on physical features and blood purity distinctions] Caste System: imposed by the Spanish government to classify colonial subjects after purity of blood became increasingly important as offspring from sexual violence and intermarriage occurred; used as protection for Mestizos from being put into encomiendas; included gendered roles and occupation legal caste system, determined how high in society a person could go Encomiendas : a system approved by the crown as a way to reward the conquistadors and establish a system of governance in the newly-conquered territories; in exchange for Indian labor and tribute, Spaniards were expected to provide protection and education for those Indians, but, in reality, the system dispossessed the Indians’ of property, but was rationalized under the pretense that it was the most effective method of acculturating them [Bartolome de las Casas : argued that Indians were humans and aimed to end encomiendas by claiming that Indians had the capacity to learn Christian doctrine; witnessed the maltreatment of the Indigenous by the Spanish and advocated before King Charles V on behalf of rights for the natives on the basis that the violence was stunting the growth of conversion] Noble Savage Debate: debate between Bartolome and Sepulveda about whether Indians were like Europeans in humanity (had souls), civility, and ability to learn ; Bartolome defended the humanity of the Indians, whereas Sepulveda argued that
Indians were inhuman, evil, and should be enslaved; Bartolome won the debate short-term, but lost long-term because Spanish society had already put the Indigenous’ humanity into question Peninsular:

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