BCH 311 - PostTranslationalModifications

BCH 311 - PostTranslationalModifications - Translation...

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Translation -translation is the synthesis of proteins from mRNA -translation takes place at the ribosomes -the ER is specialized for protein translation, folding, transport, secretion, production, etc -in eukaryotes, mature mRNA is transported to the cytoplasm 4 Stages of Translation 1) Activation : An AA covalently bonds to tRNA forming aminoacyl-tRNA 2) Initiation : The first aminoacyl tRNA binds to the start codon 3) Elongation : Bonds form between AAs 4) Termination : A stop codon is encountered Genetic Code -non-overlapping and continuous (no gaps) -RNA bases are arranged in triplets -64 possible codons 3 stop codons UAG, UGA, UAA -no codon can code for more than 1 amino acid -wobble base allows variation -tryptophan and methionine have only 1 codon -leucine and arginine may have 6 codons -for L, V, S, P, T, A, G, and R the third base is completely irrelevant -2 nd base is VERY important for determining the type of amino acid -exceptions do exist!! Transfer RNA (tRNA) -transports activated AAs to the ribosomes -has a cloverleaf structure due to H-bonding between A-U and G-C -forms both secondary and tertiary structures -tertiary structure is necessary to interact with aminoacyl tRNA synthetase - tRNA is always specific for one amino acid -the wobble base is the 5’ base of the anticodon
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BCH 311 - PostTranslationalModifications - Translation...

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